A proper understanding of the field spatial justice depends on understanding the interrelationship between politics and space and their dynamic mechanism. The mutual mechanism underpins the subject-matter and also the philosophy of spatial justice scheme in political geography. In political geography, the concept of justice has moved away from its objective level and has been reach to its subjective level. In other words, the concept of justice becomes operational. From this perspective, geographical or spatial justice is the relative equality of comprehensive development indexes (Economic, Infrastructural, political, cultural, social, security and health care) in the geographical places and spaces (micro and macro) of a country with indexes corresponding with development at the national level based on principles of need and equality. The paper tries to conceptualize spatial justice in political-geography studies using descriptive- analytic method, and data gathering procedure is based on library findings.
مطالب مرتبط با کلید واژه " Space "
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صنایع دستی از جمله صنایعی به شمار می رود که از یک طرف با هنر و ذوق و فرهنگ و تمدن در ارتباط است و از طرفی دیگر به دلیل ماهیت صنعتی با مفاهیم اقتصادی نیز مرتبط می باشد. اقتصاد صنایع دستی مدتی است که در صحنه جهانی مطرح و جایگاه مناسبی را به دست آورده است. مشکلات بسیاری در ایران برای شکوفایی اقتصادی صنایع دستی مطرح است،که این موانع می تواند به ماهیت هنرهای دستی نیز آسیب برساند. کاهش سرمایه گذاری و کاهش فروش منجر به پایین آمدن سطح عرضه و در نهایت منسوخ شدن یک صنعت و هنر دستی خواهد شد. سطح موانع و محدودیت های اقتصادی صنایع دستی چندان گسترده و وسیع می باشد که پرداختن به هنر اصیل که بن مایه صنایع دستی و هنرهای سنتی به شمار می رود را در اولویت های بعدی قرار داده است.
Time and perception are two major concerns of Woolf in many of her novels and short stories. Woolf as a modernist writer often tries in her fiction to find an epistemological solution to the problems of mortality and immortality, appearance and reality and diversity and unity and she succeeds, I think, by taking on a kind of perception that is intuitive and temporal. For her, true perception is time-bound, but like Bergson she divides time into mechanical and organic one. In her writing, she often associates symbolically the former with death and aridity and the latter with life and fertility, presenting them in the images, to name but a few of keyboard of a piano or alphabetical letters and tree or green shawl and dress, respectively. Evidently, in her views and the solution, she finds to the problems of time and perception Woolf is influenced by Bergson whose theory of time has also influenced so many other modernists. This paper elaborates on the relationship between time and perception in the works of Woolf, especially in her two major novels To the Lighthouse (1927) and Mrs Dalloway (1924) and her short story “An Unwritten Novel” (1921).
Darabgird is one of the ancient cities in Fars province. According to Iranian mythology, Darab Shah (Dariush, the Great) found the city in the Achaemenid period. But, due to the fact that 1.21% of total ceramics gathered from the city belongs to the Parthian era, we can accept that the city remained in use since Parthian period to the Islamic era. Data analysis shows that the city had a strong and intensive settlement during Sasanians, After the Arab conquest and the collapse of Pars province, some changes occurred in the function of urban spaces. Accordingly, the main settlement shifted to the north of the city. Apparently, the southern half of the city was abandoned in Islamic era. Finally, according to some other early Islamic cities, apparently in this period, the main settlement of the city shifted to outside of Sasanian city (in this case, north of the Sasanian fortifications) and we should survey this area to discover available evidences of this period. Unfortunately, this area is presently being used for agricultural purposes.