Hajj pilgrimage is one of the divine duties that is held every year by pilgrims. In addition to the jurisprudential issues of Hajj, the pilgrimage of Hajj has many individual, social, and political effects. This pilgrimage provides an opportunity for the pilgrims to gain spirituality. Anther role of Hajj is to create a platform for Muslims around the world to get to know each other. Professor Morteza Motahhari, as an Islamic thinker, believes that Hajj pilgrimage has great potentials for creating spirituality among Muslim societies. There is an international place (Kaaba) that belongs to all the believers of the world and also the same religious identity of the pilgrims of this holy house and some of the practices of this pilgrimage have the capacity to create real unity among Muslims. This research tries to study the role and position of Hajj pilgrimage in Professor Morteza Motahhari's thoughts by descriptive-analytical method and review the capacities of Hajj pilgrimage in creating spirituality from the perspective of Professor Morteza Motahhari.
The Effect of Literary Tourism on Increasing Re-Visits to Tourism Destinations through Spirituality and Authenticity(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Literary tourism is a sort of cultural tourism that deals with places and occasions from fictional texts and the lives of their authors. This might be related to a novel or a writer, such as going to a poet's grave. Literary tourism is, in fact, a kind of Tourism that adds to the knowledge and information of tourists and is a kind of combination of entertainment and education helping a lot to know more about society and culture as well as helping nations and cultures becoming closer and closer to each other at the international level. The present study is applied and descriptive survey research in terms of purpose and method, respectively. The statistical population of the study is literary tourists includes the city of Shiraz. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS and AMOS software programs, and a regression method was exerted to test the path analysis of hypotheses. Findings of this study indicate that literary tourism has a positive, significant effect on increasing re-visit tourism destination through the originality of the tourism destination brand, brand love, attachment, nostalgia, and loyalty of attitude and action.
Investigating the Role of Spiritual Orientation on Tourists' Morale with the Mediating Role of Spiritual Well-being(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
In modern eras, travels with spiritual motivation have been accompanied by significant growth. The present study is aimed to investigate the role of spiritual orientation on the morale of tourists with the mediating role of spiritual wellbeing. In terms of purpose, the present study is applied research, and in terms of method, it is a descriptive research and a survey and correlational research. The statistical population in this study includes tourists and travelers to the sights of Tehran. The statistical sample size of the study was obtained using the Morgan table, as 384 individuals were selected using the convenience cluster sampling method. The data collection instrument is Allport’s Religious Orientation Questionnaire (short form), Lemon and Ann Wangheim Tourist Morale, and Spiritual Well-being Scale by Ellison. The questionnaire reliability was verified using Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability. Its validity was verified using convergent validity and content validity by the opinion of experts regarding the study topic. SPSS and AMOS software were also used to determine the correlation and data analysis. At a 95% confidence interval, spiritual orientation and spiritual well-being positively and significantly affected tourists’ morale. Also, the mediating role of spiritual well-being in the relationship between spiritual orientation and tourists' morale was confirmed.
Nowadays, when excessive attention to the material issues and the homogeneity of societies does not meet the rebellious and human spirit, and amid successive runs, it seems that man is looking for a destination other than bread and shelter, a higher excuse to survive. The need to discover the truth and meaning of existence compels man to glorify his immaterial and spiritual dimension by seeking the path of cognition. Understanding spirituality and its history is a significant concept worth exploring from a social and personal perspective. This research was done using the qualitative grounded theory method to present the idea of spirituality in tourism, relying on Eastern philosophy and international codes of ethics, and performing different techniques such as studying various texts and using the expert’s opinion. The results of this research can be interpreted in such a way that the individual dimension includes: internal and mystical connection, human interaction in the universe and superior power, guiding principles in understanding truth and meaning of life, and social dimension including each person's cognitive system and its impact on man's attitude and perceptions of his life and behaviors, determining the tolerable capacity of the environment and environmental assessment, protection of cultural identity and indigenous subcultures. Recognition and perception of spirituality in tourism express spirituality, which is done by emphasizing self-creation and action related to the Creator of the world.
The Role of Religious Tourism and Empirical Marketing in the Development of Entrepreneurial Sports Opportunities in Mashhad(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This study investigates the role of religious tourism and experimental marketing in developing entrepreneurial sports opportunities in Mashhad. As the first step, the study's statistical population consisted of all tourists in Mashhad who have been there for at least one week for religious tourism and have also visited this city's recreational and sports centers. Moreover, three standard questionnaires were used to collect data and to analyze the data, the Skewness and Elongation tests were used to determine the data distribution, one-sample t-test to compare the mean of variables with the hypothetical standard, Kendall W test to prioritize the components from the sample view and modeling equations were used; on top of that, all analysis was performed using SPSS software version 23 and SmartPLS version 3. The results showed that the average score of religious tourism, experimental marketing, and entrepreneurial sports opportunities and their components are relatively good. Hence, their average score was more than three. Results also showed that religious tourism and empirical marketing positively and significantly affect developing entrepreneurial sports opportunities in Mashhad. Finally, the structural equation model of the relations of the three main variables of this research and their components had a suitable fitting.
Analytical-descriptive Study of the Role of Art and Architecture in Strengthening the Spiritual Dimensions of Tourism with Emphasis on Aesthetic Elements (Case study: Seven examples of historical and religious buildings in Qazvin)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Spirituality is an inner and natural concept and a truth in the heart of the universe that human beings can achieve in the context of travel and tourism, as well as in the path of movement and communication with society, the universe, and God. The revival of high values and indicators aims to create and recreate a new identity and promote to create and recreate the sense of spirituality in a meaningful relationship between tourists and visitors with the environment. The environment and elements in the urban space in macro-planning is a crucial and undeniable issue. This article examines the role of art and architecture in strengthening the spiritual dimension of tourism with an emphasis on aesthetic elements. For this purpose, seven examples of ancient historical and religious buildings in Qazvin, including Saad Al-Saltanah Palace, Chehel Sotun Palace, Aali Qapo Mansion, Darb-e Koushk Gate, Jameh Mosque, Al-Nabi Mosque, and Imamzadeh Hussein (AS), have been studied. Accordingly, by applying an analytical-descriptive approach based on library documents and by using Content Analysis and inferential method, this study identified elements, indicators, and components of aesthetics that lead to promotion the sense of spirituality of tourists in tourist places. These components include environmental psychology, the importance and impact of urban space and landscape, art and perception of aesthetics, beauty and perfection, color and light, geometry and its application in sacred art, geometry in Islamic decorations and patterns, form and structure of Islamic art and transcendent values in Iranian-Islamic art patterns.
Tourists’ Perceived Authenticity Regarding the Definition of Cultural Destinations in Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Nowadays, the generated and shared content on tourist perceptions in social media is considered a fresh and far-reaching way to introduce the concept of the destination image. Destination decision-makers attempt to use this content to provide a deep understanding of tourism supply and demand. Marketers have to be particular about it when defining a proper destination image. In this regard, many researchers have emphasized the importance of using social media to tap into tourists’ perceptions of destination because it not only helps to deepen the administrators’ understanding of the demands of this type of tourism and to propose new approaches to determine the customers’ preferences in destination marketing but also directs new products and services to satisfy the tourists to a greater extent. Depending on the type of tourism, the contexts and criteria for this kind of virtual investigation are different. For example, in cultural destinations, tourists’ perceptions of tangible and intangible cultural heritage and services and products offered in virtual contexts are regarded as a tool to assess the tourists’ perceptions of that destination. The present study assumes that a holistic approach toward the analysis of tourist perception in the virtual sphere could be a well-qualified alternative to determine tourists’ wants in cultural destinations. Content analysis, which is a practical method in analyzing visual and textual data and therefore is quite pertinent to the analysis of tourist perceptions, was adopted as the data analysis instrument in this study. To collect the data, two frequently-visited and widely-used websites with easy access to tourists’ comments, namely TripAdvisor and Flickr , were selected so that tourists’ experiences and perceptions could be gathered more authentically and conveniently. The findings demonstrated that the analysis of perceived authenticity of cultural destinations in Iran could provide the content required to create a destination image for purposeful marketing in Iran. Perceived Authenticity was categorized into three main themes: emotional, sensational, and rational.
In Mysticism, traveling and journeys are considered the essentials for self-knowledge, evolution, and theology. This research with a descriptive-analytical method tries to analyze the life, writings, and the legacy of Rumi - as one of the most prominent and influential mystics of history - in order to shed light on the concept, the roots, and the results of the journey from his point of view. In Rumi’s mysticism, the journey can be evaluated from a physical or spiritual aspect, and this term is usually accompanied by the concepts of separation and distance in his poetry. Rumi sometimes considers the journey as the reason behind this separation, while he sometimes considers it as its solution. The concepts of ‘whirling’ and ‘returning to one’s origins’ are among the other themes intermingled with the journey in his mysticism. These concepts can still be observed after hundreds of years in the ‘Sama Dance’ rituals in Konya. In general, Rumi considers movement, journey, and transformation as the basis for evolution and the transcendence of the human soul.
The Role of Spiritual Perception on the Feeling of Cohesion in the Period of Corona pandemic by Attending the Religious Site of Ibn Babawayh(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Spiritual perception is a concept to gain spiritual experience, a sense of closeness, connection to nature, and inner peace. In this case, the cohesion feeling is a general direction of human life that determines the degree of human resistance to life's pressures, stresses, and hardships. When it comes to Covid-19 in the world, this disease should be considered a psychosocial reality and consider the issue of health and hygiene. Covid-19 caused feelings of insecurity, fear, anxiety, negative emotions, rejection, despair, and forced people to quarantine at home. This research has been conducted with the qualitative method based on the descriptive-analytical method. The research data were collected in two sections of library documents and interviews. In addition, the content analysis method was used to analyze the data. The research area is Ibn Bulawayo religious site in Tehran, and the research time area is March 2020. According to studies and research on Ibn Babawayh’s religious place, spiritual perception is an inner and cognitive concept of each person's spiritual perceptions. Antonovsky's theory was questioned during the Corona pandemic based on comprehensibility/manageability,/significance. This study indicates that spiritual perception is related to God, the Creator of the universe, and the world of spirituality and meaning. The human becomes closer to God by Spiritual perception and contemplation, which causes the submission to the Creator. The self-surrender is a significant reason for promoting and improving a sense of individual cohesion.
Study relation of cultural intelligence with manager performance of Tour and Travel Agencies(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This study examined the relationship between cultural intelligence and managers’ performance of travel agencies. The study is applied research in terms of objectives, and this is correlational descriptive research in terms of collecting and analyzing data. The study population consisted of 500 tour managers and guides in Isfahan province. The sampling method was the simple random sampling method, and the sample size was 217 managers and tour guides of the Isfahan according to Cochran`s formula. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by Lisrel software, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings show a positive and significant relationship between tour managers' cultural intelligence and their performance in dealing with crises. Thus, the strategic importance of cultural intelligence in managers' performance while dealing with challenges has been approved. Furthermore, cultural intelligence is recognized as one of the factors influencing the prosperity of tourism by enhancing manager performance.
The Role of Family Tombs in Developing and Strengthening Spiritual Tourism (A case study of Isfahan Takht-e-Foulad Cemetery)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The cemetery has been used as an indigenous urban space, a place for social interactions, the memories of survivors, and the cultural identity of the legibility of urban areas in the past. For example, Takht-e-Foolad Cemetery is one of the most valuable cemeteries in the Shiite world. Takht-e Foulad Cemetery is one of the successful architectural examples of the attitude towards spiritual tourism. The tomb’s architecture shows the depth of the Iranian spirit of belief in the spiritual dimension of life. In most parts of Iran, this type of architecture, mostly in the form of shrines (Imamzadeh) or the tombs of people with honors, and sometimes family tombs, can be found. Tomb architecture in Iran has been different according to time and place. One factor that has had a significant impact on the type of architecture is each period's cultural, social, and spiritual conditions. Despite their socio-historical importance, family tombs are among the buildings that have been less studied and considered in tomb architecture. Family tombs have different functions according to different definitions. Although they have gradually lost their function and importance over time, recognizing them seems necessary. The difference in the performance of these buildings (family tombs) in each period creates the motivation to study and analyze them from a historical and cultural perspective. With a qualitative research approach, analytical-comparative research method, and field research with studies, the present study is a library to address the role of family tombs in the development of spiritual tourism that is part of tomb architecture. It should be acknowledged that the spatial and temporal realm of this research includes the family tombs of Takht-e-Foolad Cemetery in Isfahan.
A Comparative Study of Two Tourist Attractions from an Architectural Perspective (Case Study: The Shrine of Seyyed Mozaffar and Hindu Temple in Hormozgan Province, Iran)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Hormozgan located in the south of Iran with an anchorage background after the Volga River in the north of the country was an important gateway for Asian and European overseas merchants as well as importing goods into Iran. Bandar Abbas is the center of Hormozgan Province and one of metropolises of Iran which is also considered the economic pole of Iran. This city is also considered as a tourist destination in Iran because of its tourist attractions. In this research, a comparative study has been made between the Shrine of Seyyed Mozaffar and the Hindu Temple in Bandar Abbas with a new perspective. This research seeks to answer the question of what are the similarities and differences between these two monuments and what has highlighted these similarities and differences. Therefore, these two monuments are studied and compared in terms of indicators such as architecture, building materials and building plan.