Purpose: this study was conducted aimed to provide a knowledge management model for the branches of the Islamic Azad University of West Azerbaijan Province. Methodology: The present study was applied in terms of aim and quantitatively correlated in terms of implementation method. The study population was 654 faculty members of the Islamic Azad University of West Azerbaijan Province during the academic years 2020-21. The sample size was estimated n = 243 based on Cochran's formula who were selected by cluster sampling method with respect to gender ratio and scientific rank. The data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire (74 items), content validity of which was confirmed by experts and its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha of 0.90. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling by SPSS-23 and LISREL-8.8 software were used for data analysis. Findings: The results of factor analysis showed that knowledge management with eight factors of infrastructure and information technology, knowledge management processes, organizational structure and setting, intellectual and innovative capital, human resources and training, knowledge leadership, and organizational management and culture explained 74% of the total variance of knowledge management. The results of structural equation modeling showed that the knowledge management model had a good fit and the eight factors had a direct and significant effect on knowledge management (P <0.05). Conclusion: According to the study results, planning to improve knowledge management through factors o infrastructure and information technology factors, knowledge management processes, organizational structure and setting, intellectual and innovative capital, human resources and training, knowledge leadership, and organizational management and culture is essential. For this purpose, the use of training workshops can be effective.
Design and Validation product Creativity Evaluation Model in Architectural Design Education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: This study aimed to plan and validate the product creativity evaluation model in architectural education. According to three product creativity evaluation models: CPAM, CSDS and PCMI. Methodology: The research was applied in terms of purpose and in terms of data collection among descriptive studies was correlational and in terms of method was mixed exploratory research. The statistical population in the qualitative section included all experts in education and creativity in Mashhad. A sample of 10 people was selected by purposive sampling using the principles of theoretical saturation from the mentioned community. In the quantitative part, the statistical population included all university professors in the field of architecture in Mashhad, and 150 people were selected by random sampling. The required data was collected in the summer of 2020 using semi-structured interviews and upstream documents in the qualitative phase. The measurement tool in the quantitative section was a researcher-made questionnaire whose construct validity was calculated using factor analysis, and the reliability value through Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82. The researcher carried out qualitative data analysis using the thematic analysis coding approach developed by Braun and Clarke and quantitative data analysis using the partial least squares method. Findings: The results revealed that five components with 12 indicators make the status of novelty with two markers of originality and surprise. Relevance to the problem includes two indicators of regulatory compliance and practicality. In addition, the effectiveness of solutions has three indicators, namely meeting the needs of contacts, being environmentally friendly, and having durability. Design elements include two indicators, details (well-defined component) and elegance, and the collection of design elements contains the three indicators of harmonization, completeness, and well-formation (well-crafted) at the 95% confidence interval (p = .001). In addition, confirmed element analysis of the obtained components revealed that all factor loads were significant, and there is an acceptable agreement between the creativity model of architectural design products and the data. The heavy element load related to novelty (0.91) and the light one are related to the collection of design elements. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be concluded that according to the experts, the factor of novelty, such as originality and surprise, along with functional factors such as relevance, effectiveness, and artistic factors consisting of the design of elements, and the collection of design elements affects the designing creativity evaluation model of problem-solving results.
Increasing the Mathematical Literacy Based on the Problem Solving Teaching and Realistic Mathematics(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The main of this research was to calculate the efficiency of 9th grade high school female students as well as educational process development to increase the math literacy. Methodology: This educational process is done by combining realistic mathematics education and the process of solving mathematical problems by quasi-experimental method. The statistical population of the study was 242 ninth grade students in district 19 of Tehran province in the 98-99 academic year; they were divided into two groups of 122 students as experimental group (A, B) and 122 students as control group (C, D). The data analysis method was based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The output-oriented Charles, Cooper, and Rhodes (CCR) model was used for determining the efficiency of the students. Findings: Each student was considered as a decision-making unit (DMU) in which inputs were mathematical pre-test scores and outputs were the mathematical post-test scores. 91.185% of class A students and 93.6% of class B students from the experimental group were efficient, which has much better offspring than the control group. Conclusion: The results showed that the students involved in problem solving and realistic math instruction were efficient and the Pisa test performed very well. In addition, data envelopment analysis was a suitable method for evaluating and analyzing students' annual performance.
Purpose: Because of the important role schools play in the lives of children and in responding to post-crisis problems, and given the recent earthquake in Kermanshah province, the current study aimed to identify the indicators of an efficient school. Methodology: Using a qualitative method, this study was performed in classic Delphi and phenomenological phases on a research population comprising all workers and experts in the field of education in Sarpol-e Zahab city, Iran, who had worked from 2017 to 2019 in the city. In the first (phenomenological) phase, 15 city employees in the field of education were chosen using purposive sampling. In the second phase of the study, the sample comprised 11 people of Sarpol-e Zahab who were deemed education experts by education employees in the region, had worked in the city from 2017 to 2019, and had witnessed the earthquake. Findings: After documenting the interviews conducted with the participants, 290 codes were conceptualized and then categorized into four general indices (students; school teachers and staff; school facilities, structure, and environment; and family). Based on the codes extracted from phase one, an 82-item questionnaire was designed for the second research phase (Delphi study). Ultimately, after three rounds of responses, 23 questions were removed, and the expert panel agreed on 59 questions. Conclusions: Based on the results, it can be concluded that an efficient school is one that can consider the four dimensions of students school teachers and staff, school facilities and structure, and environment and family in designing the school.
Application of a Model of Higher Education for Commercializing Knowledge and Meeting the Needs of the Study Population Comprehensive and Very Large Branches of Islamic Azad University(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The present study was conducted aimed to apply a model of higher education for commercializing knowledge and responding to the needs of society in comprehensive and large branches of Islamic Azad University. Methodology: This study was applied in terms of objective, and in terms of method is in the category of data-based qualitative and exploratory research, conducted in two phases. In the first phase, while reviewing the literature, by 18 in-depth and semi-structured interviews using theoretical purposeful sampling (including 15 faculty members and 3 experts in the industry) required data were collcted that reached saturation. The data collected from the interviews were analyzed based on the systematic approach of Strauss and Corbin at three stages of open, axial and selective coding. Findings: Finally, a summary of the developed model was presented to 4 professors, and their opinions were collected for correction and adjustment. In order to evaluate the reliability of the data, the criteria of the Grounded Theory including comprehensibility, compatibility, controllability, and generality of Strauss and Corbin (2008) were carefully investigated. In the second phase, the results of the analysis were compiled in the form of a questionnaire and the first stage of Delphi was performed on 15 experts and by calculating Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance (W) of 0.564, 25 components were excluded. Then, the second and third stages of Delphi were performed on 15 and 12 experts, respectively. Given that a significant coefficient of less than 5% was obtained for all components, no component was excluded at the second and third stages of Delphi, and Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance (W) was calculated to be 0.600 and 0.788, respectively, indicating a consensus among members. Conclusions: Finally, the research model was developed with 6 main categories and 43 sub-categories.
Purpose: The purpose of this current research is to design and formulate a decentralized curriculum for primary schools in Iran. Methodology: The methodology is qualitative research from content analyzing of comparison-categorizing system, which includes three steps. In the first step, decentralized and extracting its parameters, international dissertations and researches in connection with subject of the research in qualitative analyzing method were investigated and studied. In the second step, after concluding the findings, the final curriculum pattern was formulated including decentralized curriculum (objectives and contents, teaching-learning methods, evaluation). In the third step, measuring-descriptive methodology was used by making use of factor-analysis for evaluating the credibility of suggested model from viewpoints of experts and specialists. The realm of research was all books and written references on decentralized curriculum that were selected by purposeful sampling. Due to the abundance of various available printed and digital references, those ones from 2000 to 2015 were used. Data collection tools were researcher-made charts and tokens, which were used for collecting categories and elements of decentralized curriculum. Faculty members, specialists and experts’ viewpoints were used for reliability of the research. Findings: The After taking opinions and revising, the final framework was formulated. For increasing the credibility of the research, ultimate attention and care were taken in order to prepare tokens. On quality of research, 467 conceptual codes were extracted, 23 main parameters were achieved which were used for formulating decentralized curriculum. A research-made questionnaire was designed in order to evaluate the conceptual structure of the research and it was reviewed by 200 specialists and experts, and then it finally was approved after carrying out a factor-analyzing showing that most of articles had proper weigh-factor which means all standard coefficients were within 0.3 to 0.6. On the other hand, the articles put proper weigh-factors on their factors. Conclusion: This current research as a non-intensive curriculum model for Iranian elementary schools is usable for curriculum designers and authorities of Ministry of Education who have stepped forward efficiently to give more authorities to education organization of provinces.
MOOCs, Completion Rate, Learning Satisfaction, Quantity and Quality of the Knowledge(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: This study uses TAM theory to better understand variables that are indicative of MOOCs’ courses’ completion rates; furthermore, this paper scrutinizes the quantitative relationship between MOOC platform usage and learning satisfaction. Methodology: This was an applied research in a virtual community called Coursera where people all over the world participate. The research design was quantitative and the questionnaire link was posted on the Coursera, with convenience sampling. Data collection process started from November 12, 2020 until February 23, 2021, and 234 users of the selected MOOC platform (Coursera) participated to evaluate the proposed model. A multivariable systematic technique (PLS) was applied to analyze the model. To conduct the reliability test, individual item loadings and internal consistency were consulted. Convergent validity of the model was measured via the Structural Equation Model (SEM). The examination of the SEM was incorporated an evaluation of the path coefficients and R2 values. Findings: The loadings of all measurement items are larger than 0.792, indicating sound internal reliability of the dataset. Moreover, the Cronbach's alpha values are all > 0.7 which proves the internal consistency of the research model. In this research, the range of CR is 0.838 to 0.947 and the range of AVEs 0.634–0.857, both exceeding the threshold values for desirable convergent validity. To obtain discriminant validity, the square root of AVE should be larger than the correlation among the constructs. The value of each AVE’s square root is greater than the off-diagonal components. The model explains 21.1% of the variance in perceived usefulness, 20.9% in perceived ease of use, 26.9% in attitude to use, 20.0% in MOOC platform actual usage and 24.2% of the variance in learning satisfaction. The path coefficient from quantity and quality of knowledge (β=0.261, p<0.01) and perceived feedback (β=0.215, p<0.01) to PU are positive. The results show that perceived feedback (β=0.275, p<0.01), perceived complexity (β=-0.367, p<0.01) significantly and meaningfully affect PEOU. The PU showed a positive and strong effect on attitude to use (β=0.271, p<0.01), MOOC platform actual usage (β=0.360, p<0.01), and learning satisfaction (β=0.277, p<0.01). Conclusion: The results indicated that the quantity and quality of the knowledge and perceived feedback have a positive and significant impact on the perceived usefulness of MOOCs. The perceived complexity as a negative construct was found to be an important indicator of MOOC platforms usage.
Interactive Model of Digital Marketing in Online Service Startups based on Mobile Commerce in Modern Sociology(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The present research was performed to design interactive model of digital marketing in the area of online service startups based on mobile commerce in modern sociology. Methodology: This study was of fundamental type regarding the objective, and combined type regarding the method of implementation (qualitative and quantitative). The research population consisted of experts familiar with the issue in Hormozgan province in 2020, out of whom 20 were chosen as the sample through purposeful sampling method as the sample. The research instrument of the qualitative part was based on domestic and international research, wide the research instrument for the quantitative section was a 20- item questionnaire based on the qualitative part. In the qualitative section, using fuzzy Delphi method, the factors were identified and confirmed or screened, while they were ranked in the quantitative section using fuzzy DANP method. Findings: The results indicated that after three rounds of fuzzy Delphi, 15 indices were identified across six elements including technical/technological, personal user, social, customer orientation, perceived value, and reliability. Other results based on the fuzzy DANP method indicated that the user personal elements, plus social elements, reliability, perceived value, technological/technical, and customer orientation had the largest weights respectively. In addition, validity, personal innovation, and online experience claimed the first to third ranks in terms of weight. Conclusion: The results indicated the effective role of three elements of personal user, social, and reliability in comparison to other elements, which could be exploited by managers and planners to improve digital marketing based on mobile commerce.
Purpose: The main objective of this study was to provide a model of Internet TV development in Iran using marketing approach. Methodology: The present study was applied-developmental in terms of objective and exploratory sequential mixed in terms of nature. The statistical population was in the qualitative section was composed of professors and specialists of Internet TV, as well as experts and activists in this department. The experts were identified by purposeful and snowball sampling, which according to the adequacy of the data, a total of 25 experts were interviewed. The statistical population in the quantitative section was 384 ordinary and Internet TV audiences in Isfahan. In the qualitative section, the interview was used as a data collection tool and in the quantitative section; a 58-item questionnaire was used. The research method in the qualitative section was thematic analysis and in the quantitative section, the researcher used the structural equation approach and Smart PLS software. Findings: The results showed that the identification of components and elements of a model of Internet TV development and the relationship between these components and elements by marketing approach led to the development and promotion of Internet TV, by providing and facilitating the necessary conditions and facilities will make more audiences interested in using these services, and finally the result of this study is to provide an appropriate model for the development of Internet TV by marketing approach. Conclusion: The results obtained from the structural equations were evidence that all the designed equations in the qualitative section are approved and all components of the model have significant relationships with each other.
Relationship between Communication Skills with Life Satisfaction among Students Studying at Islamic Azad University of Tehran: A Case Study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between communication skills and life satisfaction among students of Islamic Azad University. Methodology: This was an applied study in terms of its aim and a descriptive correlational in terms of its methodology. The research population included 190000 students studying at Islamic Azad University of Tehran in the academic year 2019-2020. The sample size was estimated to be 384 people selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected by Communication Skills Test-Revise (Queendom, 2004) and Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (Huebner, 1991) and analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regressions in SPSS ver.19 software. Findings: The results showed that communication skills and all dimensions including the ability to receive and send message, emotional control, listening skill, insight into the communication process and communication with determination had a positive and significant relationship with life satisfaction in students (P<0.01). Communication skills significantly could predict 33.6% and among the dimensions of communication skills, three dimensions of listening skill, communication with determination and the ability to receive and send message together could predict 60.8% of life satisfaction changes in students (P<0.001), but the dimensions of emotional control and insight into the communication process did not enter the equation due to the lack of a significant increase in the amount of prediction (P>0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, communication skills with life satisfaction have a significant relationship and predicted a significant portion of it. Therefore, planning to improve the satisfaction of life in students is essential by increasing their communication skills through workshops.
Designing and Validating a Model for Empowering Primary Teachers based on Lesson Study Approach Using Experts' Opinion(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to design and validate a model for empowering primary teachers based on the study lesson approach using experts' opinion. Methodology: This was an applied qualitative study based on the aim and the nature of the data, respectively. The study population in the qualitative part of the research included education experts and top teachers in education areas. The sample size in the qualitative part was selected using the theoretical saturation principle and purposive sampling method. Data collection was carried out using interview. The validity and reliability of the instruments were evaluated and confirmed. In the qualitative part, data analysis was performed using theoretical coding in MAXQDA software and grounded theory method. Findings: The results of factor analysis showed that out of 120 available indicators (items), 18 main components were identified. Accordingly, the components of knowledge, skills, attitudes as constituent factors and individual factors, organizational factors and group factors were identified as effective factors. Conclusion: The results also showed a significant difference between the scores of teachers who participated and not participate in the lesson study process in terms of the standards of educational design and planning, creating and maintaining a learning atmosphere, implementing and conducting teaching, measuring and communicating with learning outcomes, evaluation and reflection on learning and teaching, more cooperation from teachers, activities to strengthen content knowledge and educational technology. Therefore, it can be stated that lesson study approach can lead to the development of teachers' abilities.
Identifying the Causes of Social Isolation and Designing a Relevant Model for Female High School First-Year Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to identify the causes of social isolation and design a relevant model for high school students. Methodology: This was an applied study in terms of its aim and mixed-method study in terms of its implementation method (qualitative and quantitative). The study population in the qualitative section included documents and resources and educational management experts and, in the quantitative section, 180 female high-school first-year students in Gorgan during the academic year 2019-2020. According to the data saturation principle, the research population in the qualitative part included documents and resources related to social isolation and 10 educational management experts who were selected by purposive sampling. According to Cochran's formula, the study population in the quantitative section included 180 female high-school first-year students who were selected by cluster sampling method. Data were collected by note taking, interviews and a researcher-made questionnaire (39 items), the construct and convergent validity of which were confirmed and its reliability was obtained α=0.96 by Cronbach's alpha method. Data were analyzed by open and axial coding methods, factor analysis and structural equation modeling in MAXQDA software. Findings: The findings of the qualitative section showed that social isolation consists of six components and 40 indicators, including socio-economic anomalies (7 indicators), individual variables (9 indicators), parental role (5 indicators), strengthening social relations (6 indicators), psychological interactions (10 indicators), and family level (3 indicators). The findings of the quantitative section showed that the social isolation model had a good fit and all six components, i.e. socio-economic anomalies, individual variables, parental role, strengthening social relations, psychological interactions and family level had a significant effect on social isolation (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to the results, sociologists can use the social isolation model designed in the present study to reduce social isolation; therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the role of effective components.
Provide a Model for Teaching Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Education and Training Organization based on Data Theory Strategy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The objective of the present study was to present a model for training organizational citizenship behaviors in the Education Organization based on grounded theory. Methodology: The present study was applied in terms of objective. For a rich description of the experiences, attitudes and perception of the interviewees towards training organizational citizenship behaviors, the qualitative research method was used and in particular grounded theory (systematic approach) was used to achieve a paradigm model. The population of this study included professors, university experts and directors of education in Kermanshah Province. Sampling in the present study was purposeful, in which 14 people were selected from the mentioned ones. In this study, interviews have been used to collect their views related to the training of organizational citizenship behavior in the Education Organization. Content validity was used to evaluate the validity of the construct and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to evaluate the reliability. The research tool in this section was a questionnaire and for data analysis, SMART PLS3 and SPSS23 software were used. Findings: The results showed that causal conditions (employee empowerment; decentralization; and employee awareness of organizational citizenship behavior); axial phenomena (chivalry and forgiveness, conscientiousness; organizational spirituality; respect and esteem; and civic virtue); strategic factors (organizational contexts, fair and rapid feedback; observance of justice in the organization; policy making; and increasing employee motivation); confounding variables (personality traits; and cultural, social, political and economic conditions); background conditions (organizational culture, transformational leadership, and organizational support) and consequences (effectiveness and improvement of organizational performance; employee satisfaction; organizational commitment, cooperation and participation) affect the training of organizational citizenship behavior in the Education Organization. Conclusion: The study results showed the effect of each of the different categories on the training of organizational citizenship behavior. So, to succeed in this regard, special attention should be paid to these categories. Therefore, in order to achieve higher effectiveness and proper hiring of employees with extra-role behaviors, the Education Organization should consider and implement the necessary program and preparation for training organizational citizenship behaviors.
Purpose: Dormitory life faces many challenges and there have been relatively many studies on this topic, therefore, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to review previous studies on dormitory life in Iran. Methodology: This was an applied meta-analysis. The study population included dormitory life studies registered in scientific databases during the years 2004-2007, and a total of twenty studies were selected as a sample based on inclusion criteria and using purposive sampling method. Data were collected by note taking method and analyzed by inverse questionnaire method and frequency and frequency percentage in SPSS ver.23. Findings: All twenty studies were reviewed based on the study method, type of study, data collection tools and techniques, sampling method and data analysis level. According to the results, dormitory life-related problems include homesickness, economic problems, lack of exercise facilities, poor food, lack of extracurricular activities, lack of study space, lack of health facilities, absence of recreational and welfare facilities, lack of recreational, scientific and research camps, absence of counselors and guides, absence of individual and group skills training workshops, lack of planning for students' holidays, dormitory rules, student congestion in rooms and public space, dormitory officials, lack of room space, no dorm assignment program, maladaptation of some students, lack of religious group activities and dormitory supervisors' unfamiliarity with student morale. Also, solutions to reduce the problems of dormitory life include increasing counseling workshops, increasing exercise facilities, increasing the quality of nutrition, holding classes and increasing managers' level of knowledge, increasing the quality of health care, the presence of counselors in dormitories, increase the number of interaction-focused dialogue sessions, increasing the number of study halls, holding recreational, scientific and research camps, increasing students' awareness of social harms, teaching strategies to reduce stress and anxiety, and holding extracurricular classes. Conclusion: Considering dormitory life-related problems and the related solutions, it is possible to provide appropriate conditions to reduce tensions and improve the quality of dormitory life by improving the dormitory conditions.
On the Effect of Positive Curriculum on Distress and Attainment of Iranian Dorm-Living Students: Incorporating Religious Counseling(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: Considering rich theoretical underpinnings of positive psychology (PP), the current study aimed to investigate the effects of an extra educational curriculum on the basis of PP on distress and attainment of Iranian high school students who are living in dormitories in boarding schools. Methodology: This is an empirical study with a post-test only control group design in which a sample of 346 male students were selected through convenience sampling from two boarding schools in Qom city during 2018-2019. A translated and validated version of K10 distress questionnaire (Kessler et al, 2010) was administered to them and 67 students with high distress symptoms were identified and randomly allocated to a control group (N=23), experimental group one (N= 22) and experimental group two (N=22). First, the experimental group underwent 16 sessions (twice a week for 90 minutes) of PP curriculum integrated with religious counseling. Employing a post-test only control-group design, the group’s performance on a distress scale (Goldberg, 1981) and their mean scores were compared after the intervention. Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA tests were used to compare differences between the groups. Findings: Findings revealed that positive curriculum alleviated distress symptoms of the experimental groups vis-à-vis the control (χ2 (2) = 52.851, p ≤ 0.001). Also, to investigate the effect of the intervention on educational attainment, their semester mean scores were analyzed through ANOVA (F = 8.244(2, 66), p≤0.001) where promising results were obtained. Conclusion: It was concluded that both interventions exerted meaningful effects on the attainment and distress of dorm-living students. Also, follow-up studies added proof on the permanence of the effects.
Public Welfare Governance Model with Social Justice Development Approach of Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor and Social Welfare(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The overall purpose of this study was to determine the public welfare governance model with the social justice development approach of the Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor and Social Welfare. This research was a kind of grounded-applied study. Methodology: The research method is mixed and applied in terms of purpose and descriptive and correlational in terms of how to collect information. Data collection tools were semi-structured interviews and fifteen experts familiar with the topics were interviewed in order to collect data via using purposive sampling method. The statistical population included all employees of the Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor and Welfare of East-Azarbaijan province, which is equal to 98 people. The sampling method was stratified relative and the sample size was 80 people. Findings: Eighteen categories were obtained by classifying 322 key concepts, which were placed in the form of 7 main categories such as participation, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness, approval and rule of law, managers' responsibility, transparency and justice. Conclusion: In the para-permanent model of fighting corruption and central justice of the above category, transparency and fighting corruption of the underlying category, accountability and responsibility of the environmental category, participation and involvement of organizations in governing the strategic category and effectiveness and efficiency, the consequence category and the results are a model of public welfare governance.
Presenting Consumer Behavior Prediction Model with Emphasis on Brand Perception from Shahrvand Store Brand(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: the present research was designed and implemented with the aim of presenting a prediction model for consumer purchase behavior with emphasis on brand perception of Shahrvand store. Methodology: in order to achieve the research objectives, qualitative and exploratory grounded theory approach was used. The sample required for investigating the research questions was obtained through theoretical sampling method. The required data were collected through profound and semi-structured interviews until theoretical saturation. Overall, 10 interviews were performed with the experts of marketing and industrial management, general psychology, the representatives and staff of chain stores. For data analysis, Strauss and Corbin methodical approach was used by going through three stages of open, axial, and selective coding. Eventually the paradigmatic model of the research was presented. Findings: at the end of the data analysis, 94 concepts were identified as 19 items and six main classes. The results indicated that perceived satisfaction with the brand, brand communication, and enjoyable motives were introduced as excellent and effective conditions on development of the axial dimension of consumer status, grantmaking based on behavior, perception, and expectations of consumers about services. They lead to repeated purchase behavior, brand dependence, and brand loyalty through perceived strategies, perceived after sale services, and perceived value creation for consumer. Conclusion: based on the findings, stores, relation-oriented marketing, and internal branding of the store were identified as the contextual conditions, and perception of environmental factors plus consumers' perceived experience as confounding conditions.
Development of an Environmental Curriculum Model Based on Self-Management in High School: A Qualitative Study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: This study aims at developing an environmental curriculum model based on self-management in the high school in a qualitative study. Methodology: This is an applied study in terms of purpose and a qualitative study in terms of implementation method. The research community included environmental curriculum experts in Iran based on self-management in 2021. The research sample was estimated to include 15 subjects according to the theoretical saturation principle. They were selected by purposive sampling method based on the inclusion criteria. Indexing and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data, the validity and reliability of which were confirmed. Finally, the data were analyzed by content analysis method. Findings: The results showed that, in terms of objectives, the self-management-based environmental curriculum in the high school included the themes of organizing critical thinking skills development, constructive thinking promotion, behavioral strategies, improving environmental knowledge and cognition, environmental culture promotion, internalization of environmental value, and natural reward strategies. Also, in terms of contents, it included themes of organizing integrated content, applied content, development of thinking skills, alignment with humanities and ethics, comprehensiveness of content, development of managerial skills and integrated content. In addition, in terms of teaching and learning strategies, the themes included being organizational and practicality, interactivity, and being exploratory. The themes of the evaluation element included rational organization, situation-based evaluation, evidence-based evaluation, and evaluation feedback. Finally, based on the organizational and basic themes in the area of objectives, content, teaching and learning strategies and evaluation, a self-management-based environmental curriculum model was designed for the high school. Conclusion: According to the results, experts and planners can improve the self-management-based environmental curriculum.
Effect of Bias Tasks through Cooperative Learning on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension Achievement: Gender in Focus(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: An important facet in learning a language is expanding reading comprehension capability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of implementation bias tasks through cooperative learning and gender on the reading comprehension process of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Methodology: Two groups of 30 learners took part as a control group and an experimental group. Primarily the participants took The Preliminary English Test (PET) as a reading comprehension pretest. Then the experimental group instructed through the precepts of bias tasks in cooperative learning. However, the control group instructed through traditional instruction. Finally, the participants took the reading comprehension post-test. Findings: The result of two-way ANCOVA revealed that bias tasks through cooperative learning improved EFL learners' reading comprehension skills. Conclusion: Also, findings demonstrated that the means reading scores did not differ noticeably between male and female groups on both pretest and posttest. This task in cooperative learning can be utilized either in the classroom or in instructors' training.
Validation of the Evaluation Model of the Quality of Combined Education in Higher Education Based on the CIPP Evaluation Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The objective of the present study was to validate the evaluation model of the quality of combined education in higher education based on the CIPP evaluation approach. Methodology: The present study was applied in terms of objective, and cross-sectional in terms of method and data collection. The statistical population included students of the Islamic Azad University of Tehran in 2020 and 140 students participated in this study by power analysis sampling method. A researcher-made questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale including 9 main categories, 20 sub-categories and 83 items was used for data collection. Convergent validity, divergent validity and Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio (HTMT) were used to validate the questionnaire and a value greater than 0.7 was obtained from all categories. The reliability of the questionnaire was investigated using Cronbach's alpha, composite reliability and Rho coefficient and calculated greater than 0.7 in all categories. Also, the total Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire was 0.891. In order to investigate the conceptual model of the research, the partial least squares and Smart PLS software version 2 have been used. Findings: The results showed that the use of appropriate evaluation methods leads to students' increasing knowledge and skills. Finally, this growth will lead to satisfaction with the quality of education, practicality and field of study. Conclusion: According to the study results, it was found that the appropriate selection of managers by increasing the capability and utility of their role will pave the way for appropriate methods of evaluation.
Purpose: The present article aims to study the gender oppression of female students in the context of the existing relations at Iranian universities. Methodology: To this end, based on the qualitative method, ten universities in different fields were selected and in-depth interviews were conducted with 146 female students who experienced sexual harassment by male professors. Thus, we analysed interviews by thematic analysis. Findings: University community is the only mixed community, gender-wise, in Iranian administrative-governmental settings, with a very different cultural diversity and circulation. Therefore, scores of situations, in which gender and sexual encounters are possible, arise amid everyday university relationships. Although the issue of male professors’ sexual and gender encounters with female students has been publicized in Iran, it has been mostly ignored in research studies. Conclusion: The findings of the study show that when the Islamic cultural principle of gender relationship boundaries is regarded firmly or violated by male professors, the triad of ‘violence’, ‘discrimination’ and ‘exploitation’ will emerge, resulting in gender oppression toward female students.