Purpose- Over the past decades, the improvement of sustainable rural livelihoods has received much attention and has been one of the main goals of sustainable rural development. One of the main approaches to improve rural livelihoods is the development of rural tourism. This has been considered by policymakers as a strategy to reduce rural poverty, especially in developing countries. Therefore, the present study is to investigate the impact of tourism on sustainable livelihoods. Research limitations/implications- This is a descriptive-analytical study in which the documentary study method and field survey (questionnaire-observation-interview) were used in the case study of Saravan. The statistical population is 4233 Saravan rural households. In this framework, 360 household questionnaires have been completed based on the Cochran formula as a research sample. Finding- The results have indicated that tourism in Saravan has not been able to play an effective role in the sustainable livelihoods of the local people (in institutional, economic, and human developments) and covers only some households. It can be concluded that tourism has had a greater impact on other aspects such as social and environmental issues. At the same time, with proper planning, people's livelihoods and abilities can be improved by promoting tourism and sustainable livelihoods.
Evaluating the Economic and Social Effects of Tourism on Tourist Attractive Villages of Izeh and Baghmalek Counties
Purpose- The villages of Izeh and baghmalek cities are considered as tourist destinations in Khouzestan province due to their valuable natural, cultural and historical attractions. Therefore, in the present study, the economic and social effects of tourism on the tourist attractive villages of Izeh and Baghmalek were studied. Design/methodology/approach- The present study is conducted with applied purposes using a descriptive-analytical method. The library and field methods were used for data collection. The statistical population of the study included 20 rural experts and managers and 242 rural heads of households who were selected by simple random sampling. Villages that had the potential for tourism were selected. In order to use the indicators, based on the theoretical foundations of previous researches and studies, the indicators were screened and operationalized. Based on the nature of the research, 10 indicators with a higher degree of reproducibility were selected. SPSS tests and Prometheus technique were used to analyze the data. Findings- Assessing the effects of tourism on the studied villages showed that tourism has the most positive effects on indicators of improving facilities and services, booming local products market and household income growth and employment, respectively, and the most negative effects on cultural interactions and population dynamics, land price, and changes in lifestyle and security. Moreover, the results of Prometheus technique showed that the percentage of changes in tourism effects was 80% in Imamzadeh Abdolah, above 69% in Shivand, 59.14 in Mal agha, 27.26% in Robat Hazrat Soleiman, 17.69% in Abolabbas, 16.12% in Susan village, 10.75% in Pian, 10.63% in Sadat Hosseini village and 8.46% in Kamal village. Originality/value- The community living in Izeh and Baghmalek cities have been facing many problems for many years. In such a way that the mentioned cities were deprived of the minimum facilities and welfare services. These problems are more pronounced in rural communities. Therefore, considering that the villages of the two cities, have natural potentials for tourism, handicrafts, local and indigenous products, etc., it is possible to develop tourism and take advantage of these capacities to improve facilities and services, income, quality of life, etc., in these villages.
Explaining the Model of Post-Disaster Temporary Accommodation Strategy (Case Study: Sarpol-e Zahab, Kermanshah)
Purpose- The study aims to identify the main problems of temporary accommodation strategies and to discuss some principles and guidelines in order to assist decision-makers for choosing the most suitable strategy and reach better temporary accommodation solutions. Design/methodology/approach-The present research is of applied type and has been done by descriptive- analytical method. Documentary and library methods have been used to collect information. In this study, the main focus is on providing qualitative components of post-disaster accommodation in the form of a strategic model as a platform for decision makers in crisis situations. Findings- This research presents a comprehensive strategy in temporary accommodation planning for decision makers by separating the two organizational and technical parts into three main parts (strategic, programmed and project level). To make the necessary decisions based on the personalization of the effective factors in each situation. Research limitations/implications- At the time of the disaster, due to emergency, it is impossible to address all the parameters affecting the planning of temporary accommodation. In addition, each affected area has its own individual circumstances, which lead to the choice of its own strategy. It is essential to address the pre-disaster planning process and to have a model that can cover human error and consider the correspondence between the former and the new. Practical implications- By applying a systematic strategy of temporary accommodation, in each area according to local data, while determining the stages of necessary activities in the time pre- disaster, disaster and post- disaster, can reduce the risks of crisis and increase resilience in the affected communities. Originality/value- This article initiated an innovative systematic strategy of temporary accommodation which, be considered a series of actions as processes for fulfilling certain needs rather than as objects only such as tents or buildings.
Purpose- Aim of this study was to interpret the effect of perceived quality and perceived value on tourists’ loyalty by the mediation of satisfaction and destination image in the three tourism target villages of Yazd province (located in central Iran). Design/methodology/approach- Present study is applied research regarding the objective and the type of research is a descriptive correlation. The population of the study consists of all incoming tourists to three tourism villages of Yazd province (Kharanagh, Saryazd, and Sadeghabad). Participants were 200 visitors to three villages of Yazd province that were selected using the convenience sampling method. They all completed the perceived quality, perceived value, satisfaction, destination image, and loyalty scales in a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the path analysis model (LISREL software). Findings- The study shows that there is a positive and significant relation between tourists’ loyalty and perceived quality, between tourists’ loyalty and perceived value, between tourists’ loyalty and destination image, and between tourists’ loyalty and satisfaction. Moreover, perceived quality and perceived value have a direct, significant effect on tourists' loyalty. Perceived quality by the mediation of destination image has an indirect effect on tourists 'loyalty; perceived quality by the mediation of satisfaction has an indirect and meaningful effect on tourists 'loyalty; perceived value by the mediation of destination image has an indirect effect on tourists' loyalty; perceived value by the mediation of satisfaction has an indirect and meaningful effect on tourists' loyalty.
Integration of Neural Network, Markov Chain and CA Markov Models to Simulate Land Use Change Region of Behbahan
Purpose- Land is the place of earthly natural ecosystem functionality that has been used by humans in multiple methods. Land-use change (LUC) simulation is the most important method for researching LUC, which leads to some environmental issues such as the decreasing supply of forestry products and increasing levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, the present study aims at (i) using the Landsat imagery to prepare land use-cover (LULC) maps for 2000 and 2014; (ii) assessing Land use changes based on land change modeler (LCM) for the period from 2000 to 2014, and (iii) predicting the plausible land cover pattern in the region of Behbahan, using an algorithm based on ANN for 2028. Design/methodology/approach- A hybrid model consisting of a neural network model, Markov chain (MC), and cellular automata (CA Markov) was designed to improve the performance of the standard network model. The modeling of transfer power is done by multilayer Perceptron of an artificial neural network and six variables. The change allocated to each use and the forecasting is computed by Markov chain and CA Markov. Operation model calibration and verification of land use data at two points were conducted in 2000 and 2014. Findings- Modeling results indicate that the model validation phase has a good ability to predict land-use change on the horizon is 14 years old (2028). The comparison between modeling map and map related to 2013 shows that residential area and agricultural land continue to their growth trend so that residential area will be increased from 3157 hectares in 2014 to 4180 hectares in 2028 and it has 2% growth that has been 2% from 2000 to 2014. The results of this study can provide a suitable perspective for planners to manage land use regarding land-use changes in the past, present, and future. They are also can be used for development assessment projects, the cumulative effects assessment, and the vulnerable and sensitive zone recognition.
Analysis of Socio-Cultural Challenges Facing Local Managers in the Process of Rural Development (Case Study: Central District of Rasht County)
Design/Methodology/Approach- This is an applied research in which a descriptive-analytical method has been adopted for data collection and analysis. The study data was obtained through documentary analysis and field studies. The statistical population of this study includes 63 villages in the central district of Rasht County. All Dehyars and members of the Islamic Council of these villages (n=284) were interviewed and filled out the questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using statistical methods (t-test and weighted mean). The social challenges facing local managers with 18 items and cultural challenges with 8 items were subjected to analysis at three levels. Findings- The results suggested that local managers of villages in the central district of Rasht County confront serious social and cultural challenges in the process of rural development. Poor collaboration of villagers with local village managers in rural development plans and projects with a mean of 4.42, reverse migration and social problems caused by the construction of second houses with a mean of 4.41 and migration of youths from villages to the city and non-participation in Council elections with a mean of 4.40 were the major social and ethnic challenges. Also, tribal differences in the villages with a mean of 4.35, lack of solidarity between local managers and people in tackling rural problems with a mean of 4.34 and poor work culture with a mean of 4.13 were also the most important cultural challenges facing local managers in the villages at the central district of Rasht County. Research Limitations/Implications- The disagreements between local managers, reluctance to provide information on research topic and the difficulty of reaching managers in the villages were the main limitations of the present study. Appointing a member of the village management body as a spokesperson and setting the criterion of permanent residence in the village as a precondition for the nomination of the executive director were among executive strategies offered in the present study. Practical Implications- Changing the management style from person-centered to participatory management in the administration of rural affairs, monitoring the inflow of non-indigenous people into the village in order to safeguard its social and cultural structure, building a suitable infrastructure to keep young and active forces in rural areas and encouraging them to study in the fields pertained to planning and rural development, participating in the decision-making structure of local management, fostering interaction between local managers and villagers through a management system based on law obedience and transparency and ultimately stimulating villagers to engage in teamwork and its effective results in the process of achieving comprehensive rural development. Originality/value- Recognizing the main challenges facing local managers in a district of Guilan province can play a prominent role in improving their efficiency in the process of achieving rural development. The results of this research can be useful for district and county managers.