Effects of Lace up Brace on the Ankle Muscles Activity in Different Foot Position during Drop Landing with and without Fatigue
Background and Purpose: Increasing participation in sports activities has increased the incidence of sports injuries. Considering the short and long term complications of sports injuries, the need to prevent them is one of the most important goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ankle bracing on the ankle plantar flexor muscles activity in different foot position during drop landing with and without fatigue. Method: Fourteen female college athletes participated in this study. Five models of 5 and 10 degrees medial, lateral and normal wedged insoles were used to simulate the position of the feet on the ground at the wrong landing technique. The Medial Gastrocnemius (MG) and Peroneus Longus (PL) muscles activity 100 ms before and 100ms after landing in different foot position before and after muscles fatigue with and without ankle bracing was recorded with surface electromyography. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (p≤0.05). Results: The results showed that the effect of time on the activity of MG and PL muscles in landing with brace was significant, so that the MG muscle before landing and PL muscle after landing had a higher activity in both times before and after fatigue (p≤0.001). The activity of this muscles was not significant when using the ankle brace during landing in different positions (p˃0.05). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, lace-up brace can help to increase muscles activity when they were fatigue, while the using of brace does not affect muscle activity when landing perform in different positions without fatigue. According to the results, In the case of a suggestion to use brace for athletes, all aspects of using this equipment should be considered.
Developing a Model of the Impact of Service Quality, Brand’s Social Identity and Attachment to the Team on the Loyalty of Football Fans
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop a model of the impact of service quality, brand’s social identity and the attachment to the team on the loyalty of Iranian Premier League football team’s fans. Method: This is an applied study of descriptive-correlation type. The statistical population of this study consisted of the fans of the selected Iranian Premiere Football League. A probability clustering method was used for sampling. Azadi football stadium of Tehran, Imam Reza football stadium of Mashhad, Yadegar Imam Football stadium of Tabriz and Naghsh Jahan football stadium of Isfahan were selected and the questionnaires were distributed in the 12th week of the tournament (2018-2019 season) between fans in above named stadiums. 400 questionnaires were distributed equally in four stadiums and finally, 387 full questionnaires were received and this number was considered as a statistical sample of the research. A researcher-made service quality questionnaire, brand’s social identity questionnaire of Boyle and Magnusson (2007), fans’ attachment questionnaire of Yoon, Petrick, & Backman (2017) and fans’ loyalty questionnaire of Tachis and Tzetzis (2015) were used for gathering information. Structural equation model and LISREL software were used to review and test the hypotheses. Results: The result showed that brand’s social identity has a significant positive effect on the attachment and loyalty of fans (P˂ 0.05). The attachment of fans also has a significant positive effect on their loyalty (P˂ 0.05). Conclusions: It is concluded that for enhancing fan's loyalty, managers of football teams should notice to service quality as a key factor.
Assessment Task–Based Language Needs of Sport Management Students (Case study: University of Mazandaran)
Purpose: The purpose of this research was to identify specialized language needs of MA students in University of Mazandaran. Method: This study was mix method instruments which would deeply explore the perspectives of English for specific purpose teachers and students about task–based language needs of teaching ESP. Semi-structured interview was carried out with a number of teachers and students in the field of sport management. The statistical population of the stage includes some teachers and students in the field of sport management. The sampling method was Purposive sampling and Sampling continue until theoretical saturation. Three ESP teachers who have been teaching ESP to the students for at least four years participated in this study. They were all selected through purposive sampling. Also, MA and Ph.D. (twelve persons) students who had passed this course were selected in qualitative stage. In quantitative stage and based on the results of the first stage, the questionnaire was designed. This questionnaire was broadly distributed amongst students and teachers (33 persons) in the field of sport management. Descriptive and Inferential statistics, were used to analyze the demographic information of the participants and their responses. Results: The results of the study showed that the main real tasks which were most frequently used in the English sport management classes include Participating in daily conversations, giving lectures at conferences, Conversation with foreign experts, Understanding daily conversations. The method of working with and using English to English dictionary to take advantage of all the capabilities contained in it. Conclusions: The information obtained about the target tasks and their frequency can be employed when taking decisions about which tasks should be part of a curriculum.
The Studying of Brand Management Dimensions on Sport Brand Management (Case Study of Zagros Kermanshah Province)
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensions of brand impact on sports, economic and professional experts, managers and experts in Kermanshah province. Method: This is a descriptive-survey research. The statistical population consisted of 120 experts, managers and experts in sport and economic in Kermanshah province who were selected by random sampling. In this study, 87 experts including experts, managers and experts in two fields of sport and economics completed a researcher-made questionnaire assessing the dimensions of sport brand effectiveness. The measurement tool was a questionnaire of sport brand management whose reliability and validity were tested for this research. The Cronbach's alpha value for all factors is 7 or higher, indicating the appropriateness of the questions posed to assess each of the dimensions affecting sport brand management. SPSS software version 20 was used for data analysis. The results of the tests showed that all four sectors (managerial, economic, cultural and social) influenced sport brand management. Results: Finally, the overall summary of the tests shows that social media management brand with a mean of 3.09 and cultural management factor with a mean of 1.82 have the highest and lowest priority in influencing sport brand, respectively. Conclusions: The research results show that the social sector of the brand has a higher priority and microeconomic and macroeconomic indicators should be recognized.
The Relationship between Body Composition with Blood Pressure and Sleep Quality in Male Dormitory Student at Allameh Tabataba'i University
Background and Pupose: Hypertension and poor sleep quality can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, stroke, etc. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between body compositions with hypertension and sleep quality in male students living in Allameh Tabataba'i University dormitory. Material and Method: The present study was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population consisted of 170 male dormitory students of Allameh Tabataba'i University who were randomly selected. First, body composition indices and blood pressure of subjects were measured and recorded. Then, the Pittsburgh Questionnaire were completed by students (PSQI) to assess their sleep quality. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software at a significant level (P
Analyze the Status of Public Relations of Sports and Youth Organization of Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the public relations status of Sports and Youth Organization in Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad province. The present research was applied and study was a consecutive hybrid exploratory strategy and is implemented by qualitative content analysis and questionnaire quantitative survey. Method: Statistical society in qualitative section, ten people in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad provincial authority of sports and youth, and in quantitative personnel in public relations department and 46 provincial active board and sports reporters in the province in total there were 150 people. Data collection tool was a face-to-face interview and a researcher-made questionnaire. Based on the findings of the qualitative section, a questionnaire was designed and its face and content validity was evaluated by several experts in the field of public relations and sport management and its construct validity was done by confirmatory factor analysis and its reliability was Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0/94. Results: The qualitative data were analyzed by qualitative data encoding method and in quantitative part of descriptive statistics, frequency table was included and in the inferential part Friedman test was used. Conclusions: The results showed that the public relations status of Sports and Youth Organization in this province was below average, and Friedman's test showed that the importance, rank, and status of public relations were totally different.
The Relationship between Environmental Knowledge and Sport Event Organizers' Support for Sustainable Management in Sport
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between environmental knowledge and sport event organizers' support for sustainable management in sport. The present study is a descriptive-survey and field study. In order to collect data, a researcher-made questionnaire with 40 questions was used. The face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a survey of professors related to the research topic. The construct validity was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis of more than 0.3 and its reliability was confirmed byCronbach's alpha of 0.83. The statistical population of the study consisted of managers and organizers of sport events in ten provinces of the country with approximately 1000 peope. The sample size was 278 according to Morgan table, Due to the size, number and difficulty of access, the available sampling method was used to collect the samples and finally 254 questionnaires were returned. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-19 software. The results showed that the level of environmental awareness in the sample was in the range of 0 to 8 and the mean of the total sample was 3.55 with a standard deviation of 1.61. These results indicate a low level of awareness of environmental issues in the sample under study. In the present study, it seems that there is little awareness of environmental issues that may be effective in shaping people's attitudes toward the intention to support environmental issues in sporting events. Since human attitudes are driven by consciousness, it is therefore necessary to change attitudes by providing a context for raising awareness and enabling appropriate behavior. Therefore, determining the level of knowledge and attitude of individuals is the first step in determining and delivering educational programs.
Effect of 8-Week Short-Term Sprint Interval Training on Serum Levels of Adipokines, Inflammatory Markers and Lipid Profile in Overweight Boys
Purpose: the etiology of children obesity can be varied. Adipose tissue is an active tissue that secretes proteins such as TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term sprint interval training on serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6, insulin, and lipid profile in overweight boys. Method: a number of 30 overweight male students (with a mean age of 9.93±0.2 and BMI of 27.73±0.2) were randomly assigned to the control group (n=15) and sprint interval training (n=15). The subjects of the experimental group did the training for eight weeks, as the control group was engaged in doing their daily activities without intervention. Measurement of anthropometric indices and fasting blood collection were performed (to measure insulin, leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and TG) one day before and one day after the training program. Results: the results of the present study indicated that 8 weeks of sprint interval training significantly decreased weight and BMI in overweight children (P<0.001). In addition to weight and BMI reduction, levels of TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL significantly reduce the following eight weeks of the sprint interval workout (P< 0.001 for all), while adiponectin and HDL levels increase (P<0.001, P<0.01, respectively). Conclusions: in general, the present study demonstrate that sprint interval training which is a new way of physical activity exerted a positive effect on most of components contributing to children obesity.
Optimization of Ticket Sales for Tehran Azadi stadium with the Approach of Simulating Queuing Systems and MCDM
The purpose of the present study was to optimize and improve the status of ticket sales at Tehran Azadi Stadium and reduce customer waiting times in queues using methods Simulation and Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). First, using objective observation and time-out, the waiting time for spectators in the ranks of the ticket and presentation and physical examination calculations and then using the simulation software, The entire service process has been simulated from the moment the ticket is purchased until the moment they enter the stadium, and the average waiting time for spectators in the queue for the provision of services is calculated. And then we look at the problems with ticket sales. Also, using interviews with elite and expert people, there are some ways to reduce waiting times for customers in the queue. And each of these views was examined using the simulation software; then scenarios were developed to improve the status quo and then, using multi-criteria decision-making methods, we ranked the scenarios and selected the best scenario.
Relationship between the Level of Physical Activity and Nutritional Status with Fatigue in Elderly Residents of Rest Homes in Tehran
Purpose: On the other hand, fatigue is one of the most important indicators of aging syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of physical activity and fatigue in elderly residents of rest homes in Tehran. Method: This was a descriptive correlational study in which 20 rest homes located in Tehran province constituted the study population. By visiting rest homes, the eligible subjects were chosen. Physical activity was measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). The FACIT Fatigue Scale is a short, 13-item, easy to administer tool that measures an individual’s level of fatigue during their usual daily activities over the past week. Nutritional status was evaluated by mini nutritional assessment (MNA). Results: The results of statistical analysis indicated a significant and positive correlation between PASE and FACIT scores (r=0.48, p<0.01) while, there was a significant negative correlation between FACIT score and age (r=-0.23, p<0.01). Also, there was a significant positive correlation between MNA and FACIT (r=0.40, p<0.01). In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between MNA and PASE score (r=0.31, p<0.01). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that holding sports classes under the supervision of exercise physiologists is an essential matter to increase health and prevent age-related complications in elderly residents of Tehran rest homes.
The Effect of Mental Rotation Training on the Balance and Falling of the Elderly Women with Physical Training Method
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of eight weeks physical and mental rotation training on the balance and falling of elderly women. Method: The present study is a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test and two-way ANOVA, which is also t-test designed. Tools included: mental rotation questionnaire and functional reach test. The participants included: 36 patients (12 subjects in three groups of physical training, mental rotation and control group) have been randomly selected among the elderly women of an elderly Centre in Tabriz. The training program was administered in two groups of physical training and mental rotation for eight weeks, at three sessions in a week and a group of control with no intervention. For data analysis, the SPSS software, version 21 was used. Results: One-way ANOVA showed, the mean balance among the elderly women was significantly different from the physical training group. The relationship between post-test mental rotation and pre-test physical training was significant at the 0.01 level. Also, the relationship between the post-test mental rotation group and the pre-test mental rotation group was significant at the level of 0.05 and the relationship between mental rotation and balance among elderly women is significant at the 0.01 level, at the end the relationship between mental rotations and falling in the elderly was significant at 0.05 level. Conclusions: The results of this research indicates that the physical training and mental rotation training had a positive effect on the balance of the elderly women and it also showed that the elderly women of the physical training group had more improvement on balance than mental rotation groups. So, this research indicates that, cognitive abilities and movements could be facilitating and effective in this way.
The Effect of Knee Deformity on Pain Intensity and Functional Fitness in Middle Age Male with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain
Purpose: Low back pain is one of the most common health problems of the world. Very different causes can cause back pain. Approximately 85% of people who are examined for low back pain the cause is not specific. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the knee abnormalities on pain intensity and functional fitness in middle aged men with the chronic nonspecific low back pain. Method: The statistical community of this study includes 30 people of patient’s male with nonspecific chronic low back pain in the age range of 30-50 years with one of the abnormalities of genu varum or genu valgum. Results: The research findings were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods (dependent t and independent t tests). The research findings indicate that both the pain and disability of the experimental groups have significantly decreased after applying selected of corrective programs (Stretching muscles and short elements and strengthening weakened muscles). Sitting frog, walking with the inner edges of the legs, pressure to enter the wall with the outer edges of the legs to modify the genu varum. passing legs from one side to another in the form of scissors in liner mode, passing the medicine ball to the wall with the inside of the legs, walking with the outer edges of the legs to modify the genu valgum (p<0.05). While the two variables in the control group did not differ significantly (p>0.05). Conclusions: According to the results and considering the conditions prevailing on the research samples, it can be concluded that knee abnormalities (genu varum and genu valgum) affected by pain intensity and functional fitness efficacy in nonspecific chronic low back pain patients and Corrective exercises of these abnormalities has had a significant effect on reduce pain and disability index.