Purpose: Today, many scholars believe that accelerating the exchange of knowledge and information with emphasis on the central role of knowledge and science is crucial to achieve comprehensive development. In fact, a knowledge-based society is recognized as a paradigm for development. Investing in knowledge-based foundations in the rural areas can also lead the rural community towards the future and play a role in national and international arenas. The purpose of this study is to model structural equations affecting knowledge-based realization in Dehkhoda Village in Hamidieh County. Design/methodology/approach: The design of this study is of applied-theoretical type and adopts a descriptive-analytical research method. Research data were also extracted from library resources and field surveys. For this purpose, by visiting statistical centers and exploring through statistics, a comprehensive dataset was compiled for the research along with a self-administered questionnaire. The population of this study were the residents of Dehkhoda Village inhabiting permanently in this village in 2018 (n=1980). Of this statistical population, a sample size of n=321 was selected using Cochran formula for rural community. Pearson correlation coefficient, single sample T, multivariate regression and path analysis were used to analyze the data and test hypotheses. These tests were performed using SPSS.22 and Amos software. Findings: The results suggested that information and communication technology (ICT), education, management, government agencies and NGOs (as independent variables) were positively and directly related to knowledge-based realization (as dependent variable) in Dehkhoda Village. SEM indicators also exhibited that the model developed in this study is backed up by the research data, with all indicators confirming the utility of the SEM. According to the results of research, it can be argued that public satisfaction with management indicators, government and non-governmental organizations is higher than average, whereas satisfaction with ICT and education is lower than average. Practical implications: Rural knowledge-centeredness requires decentralization, reduction in government tenure, the reinforcement of voluntary and non-voluntary public institutions in villages, the modification of rural management laws and regulations to create and integrate rural management system, the assignment of a large portion of the government's executive duties and responsibilities to rural sheriffdom, and the transfer of facilities and financial resources to it.
Purpose- The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of micro credits received from Imam Khomeini Relief Committee on the empowerment of the female heads of rural household in the central part of Zanjan City. Design/methodology/approach- This is a descriptive-analytical study based on observation, interview and questionnaire. The statistical population of the present study consisted of female heads of rural households covered by Imam Khomeini Relief Committee in 38 villages of central Zanjan County. To achieve the objectives of the study, all female headed households in 38 villages of central Zanjan (n = 110) were selected using whole population count method. The data collection was conducted using library analysis and field surveys, and the main research instruments were interview and questionnaire. The questionnaire mainly consists of closed-ended questions and answers are rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Finding- Micro-credit had the greatest impact on social empowerment of female-headed households and there was a positive relationship between the allocated credit and economic empowerment of female-headed households although the coefficient indicated a weak correlation between the two variables. In addition, these micro-credits contribute to the economic empowerment of female heads of rural households by improving the employment opportunities and income. Practical implications- In light of the financial weakness of rural women, it is suggested that educational classes be organized to improve rural women's empowerment and their access to credit and financial resources through the establishment of cooperatives. Originality/value- The present study explored the capabilities of rural women in different dimensions influenced by micro-credits. The results of this study can help rural development planners and policymakers enhance women empowerment in rural communities.
Purpose - Agro-tourism and the development of farm-based tourism businesses have emerged as a creative and innovative approach to rural tourism, which exploits the potentials and capabilities of agricultural activities as unique opportunities for employment and development and poverty alleviation. The purpose of this study is to identify opportunities and areas for Agro-tourism development in rural areas of Tehran Province. Design/methodology/approach - This is an applied research that adopts a descriptive-analytical approach. The statistical population of the study consisted of the rural areas of Tehran Province, of which 8 towns and three villages from each town were selected as the sample. Data collection was conducted using both library and field survey methods; however, the main focus of the research was on field studies, which involved a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews. The questionnaires were prepared for three groups of villagers, tourists, and officials separately. The sample size for villagers was determined using Cochran formula (n=261). Also, since the exact number of tourists and officials was not known, the sample size of these two groups was selected using purposive method (n=31 and n=20, respectively). Data were analyzed using descriptive (mean and frequency) and inferential statistical methods (Chi-square test, one-sample t-test and Mann-Whitney test). Findings- The results suggest that government support and infrastructure improvement, the organization of local festivals related to farm products, the participation of tourists in harvesting, the direct presence of tourists in farming, job creation, and promotion of rural income levels are the most factors that influence Agro-tourism development in rural areas of Tehran Province. According to the results, showed all respondents agreed on the positive impact of the studied measures on Agro-tourism development.
Purpose - Spatial equilibrium at different stages, especially at the district level, is the most significant purpose of spatial development planning that is the focus of attention in Iran's policy and planning system. In this regard, spatial recognition and analysis of the components and the criteria of eligibility are significant in the context of the existing development concept. By identifying the eligibility components of rural settlements, it is possible to identify low eligibility of spatial areas affected by adverse socio-economic and spatial processes. Accordingly, the research team attempted to examine this criterion in the district of Khorramabad. Design/methodology/approach - The research method was descriptive-analytical. The statistical population was the villages of Khorramabad county (Given the frequency of a statistical population, 150 villages out of 647 were selected as the sample using stratified- random sampling. The required data (35 indices) were collected by the library method (using population and housing census and statistical yearbook of 2016). Data analysis was done using FANP model (for summarizing the indices and determining their weight), VIKOR technique (for ranking the villages), and finally, path analysis test for determining the influence degree of the factors on the level of development. According to the research findings, the following results were obtained; Finding - The process of development in Khorramabad county, is in relatively in good condition. In this process, Integrated development has not been considered. Some components (access to services, economic participation and, economic welfare) are in good conditions while some other components (agricultural production, education and population growth) are not. These conditions resulted in a decline in some villages. The level of development in Khorramabad county has been confronted with spatial inequality not just in terms of topic-specific but an area-specific aspect. This inequality resulted in the formation of the center-periphery spatial pattern that causes the marginalization (and deterioration) of disadvantaged villages.
Purpose- Over the past few decades, tourism has played an important role in revitalizing the nature, creating employment and income, preserving natural, historical and cultural heritage, and ultimately sustainable development by utilizing the natural and cultural capacities of the region. Since tourism has different economic, social, cultural, and environmental impacts on host communities, awareness of the attitude of the host community as a tourism product provider is of great importance. The main objective of the study is to investigate the local residents' attitude toward mass tourism effects in Boyer-Ahmad County. Design/methodology/approach- The present study is descriptive-analytical in nature. It takes an empirical approach. The research instrument was a questionnaire with 82 items that gathered the information needed for the research. The sample size was calculated to be 195 individuals using PASS software at 95% of confidence level. One-sample t-test, ANOVA, Friedman, and Scheffe post-hoc tests were used to analyze and respond to research hypotheses in SPSS software. Finding- The results of t-test considering the significance level of the test and the high and low levels of confidence indicated the impact of tourism in the environmental, economic, social, and fundamental dimensions, while the results of ANOVA test showed that the average of each dimension was different. The results of Friedman test with a significant level of 0.00 have assigned the highest rank to the fundamental dimension.
Purpose- Return migration acts as a driving force of development and a key incentive of prosperity in rural areas by fulfilling their potentials. Rapid population displacement in developing countries including Iran, reveals the necessity of return migration planning. Semirom is a county in Isfahan province with the highest rate of emigration based on the 2011 Census enjoying sufficient potentials to change this trend. The overall purpose of this study is to analyze the ecosystem capacity of Semirom in order to develop a return migration planning. Design/methodology/approach- The research method is descriptive-analytical. As such, this study can be categorized as an applied research. The environmental, social, economic, and managerial aspects are hereby considered. The questionnaire of Semirom situation assessment was analyzed using inferential statistics (t-test) by SPSS. Content analysis was conducted by interviewing officials using Atlas.ti software. Internal and external factors evaluation matrix and SOAR model were used to offer strategies. In the end, adaptive strategic alternatives are prioritized using the QSPM planning approach and policies for the realization of the return migration. Statistical population consists of the residents and authorities of Semirom county. Findings- The findings indicate that the most important factors affecting return migration are reinforcement of gardening, related industries and tourism attractions, improving the quality of welfare services, fostering the sense of belonging, and the availability of fertile soil and sufficient irrigation water. Accordingly, the strategy of "appropriate management of tourism and environmental spaces for proper utilization of natural resources" should be given priority. It is also suggested that proper utilization of natural resources and tourism along with the potential of eco-tourism can offer a great opportunity for sustainable employment. This requires efficient management of new approaches and providing a secure environment for investment and entrepreneurship. In other words, considering the potentials of tourism will improve the quality of amenities, infrastructure services and employment, which in turn can boost their quality of local life, and their willingness to stay permanently in their rural residence, which ultimately encourages immigrants to return to their homeland.
Purpose - The study of social capital in the context of location/space is a new approach that is dominated by the science of geography, and is seen as a way of distinguishing it from other sciences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of livelihood capitals on social capital in rural areas of Bojnourd County. Design/methodology/approach - This study was a fundamental research, conducted in a descriptive-analytical method. Documentary methods and field works have been employed to collect the data. The population consisted of 22 villages with more than 20 households in Bojnourd County, selected from various population classes and distances from Bojnourd. Using Cochran formula and random sampling method, 298 households were selected from a total of 4849 households in the rural areas of the study area. Partial least squares technique and Smart PLS software were used to test the conceptual model of the research and the impact of livelihood capitals on social capital. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to evaluate the model efficiency at Bojnourd County level. Findings - According to the results, the coefficients of T among the main variables of the study were above 2.58, which means the relationship is significant and direct. Thus, local-spatial factors have a significant and positive effect on social capital. Based on total coefficients, human capital with the coefficient of 0.348 and physical capital with the coefficient of 0.136 respectively had the most and the least effect on social capital. The results of spatial analysis using GWR showed that the impact coefficient of livelihood capitals on social capital was highest in the villages of Atrabad Olia and Gharajeh, and in total about 45% of villages in the study area had an impact coefficient of 0.90 to 0.91. Research limitations/implications - As the study of livelihood capitals and analysis of their relationship with social capital is a fundamental challenge in achieving sustainable rural development that is missing in current studies, it is recommended that future studies pay more attention to social capital and the impact of livelihood capitals on its creation and rural development. Practical implications - Rural areas suffer from the lack of social capital, which is one of the most important types of development capital required to achieve sustainable rural development. Thus, enhancing the social capital and informing the villagers about the value and importance of local-spatial factors and the material and non-material capitals available in rural areas should be on the agenda of rural development researchers and planners.