Purpose - The importance of non-governmental organizations in underdeveloped or developing countries such as Iran is more than anything due to the ability of such organizations in advancing culture in the most basic sectors of society. The purpose of this research is to analyze the role of non-governmental organizations in Golestan province in achieving sustainable rural development. Design/methodology/approach - This research is descriptive-correlative. The experts of consulting firms of Golestan province constituted the statistical population (n=706) of whom 249 were selected as the sample using stratified random sampling method. The validity of the research instrument was evaluated by faculty members and experts. The pre-test and questionnaire validation were conducted by giving the questionnaires to 30 subjects other than the statistical sample. A Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 was calculated for the reliability coefficient. Finding- According to the results, collective performance of tasks, the use of information and communication technology in providing services, the promotion of skills in producers and beneficiaries of the agricultural sector, improvement of agricultural knowledge in producers and beneficiaries, agricultural technical-vocational training, teaching of management skills and administration of entrepreneurial business along with group dynamics were the major roles of non-governmental organizations in achieving sustainable rural development. The results showed that the communicative and economic knowledge factor and economy with a specific value of 6.86 had the highest power in explaining variables, followed by the educational-promotional factor with a specific value of 6.38 and the social-facilitating factor with a specific value of 5.97. In total, about 65.2% of the total variance was explained. Practical implications- In order to achieve sustainable rural development, it is suggested that non-governmental organizations play their roles in raising income and improving the living standards of farmers, accessing resources and facilities for providing services, diversifying agricultural and agricultural activities, reducing costs and establishing contact with farmers. It also promotes the level of knowledge and skills of producers and beneficiaries in the agricultural sector.
Purpose - With increasing governmental revenue and budgets, their responsibility for community development and growth has increased. The first step to policy-making in order to attain the desired welfare levels is identify and measure the related indicators such as poverty in the best possible way. In Iran, most of conducted poverty surveys due to the lack of panel data cannot decompose households to transient and chronic poverty group. In this situation, the Synthetic panel data is a useful and new approach to estimates of poverty mobility in countries with only cross-sectional statistics. Therefore, based on this method we calculated the poverty dynamic of rural areas in Iran. Design/methodology/approach - The present study, initially calculates the absolute poverty line of rural areas in Iran in 2012, 2015 and 2016, and then calculates the status of mobility of poverty during those years based on Synthetic panel data approach. Finding- The results of the estimation of probability functions for studying poverty dynamics indicated that in rural areas of Iran there was a kind of state dependence in poverty. According to the results, there is a dependency state in the rural poverty situation, where more than 86% of the households who were poor in 2016 were also poor (non-poor) during the first period (2012 or 2015) and only with the probability of less than 14% of the poor (non-poor) households during the past years was in the non-poor (poor) state.
Purpose - The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors causing the spreading out the poverty in rural areas of thcounty of Miyandoab. knowledge of the extent of poverty affecting the community and the factors affecting it are important issues in the formulation of poverty reduction programs. Design/methodology/approach - The current research is exploratory and descriptive-analytical and follows a hybrid approach. However, the present research adopts a quantitative approach in (Q) and a qualitative approach, and in the process of factor analysis. The philosophical framework is a kind of interpretive paradigm-positivism, and is a field research the community of discourse includes rural managers (governors, heads of government departments, County Department, rural directors and Dehyars), experts and local experts in the County of Miyandoab. The discourse community was identified through targeted sampling (snowball) and the (Q) collection (41 items) was arranged by 28 members of the statistical community. For data and information analysis, Stephenson's factor analysis was used based on an individual basis. Findings - Findings of the research showed that the Spreading out of rural poverty are: 1) Low economic power And inappropriate macro policies of the state, 2) Social barriers, insufficient service and investment insufficiency, 3) Environmental hazards and the level of education and awareness, 4) The weak sources of sustainable earnings and marketing mechanisms, (5) Natural sources of inappropriate production and limited spatial flows, and (6) Vulnerability of income sources and the weakness of support institutions (insurance, etc.). Among them, the first factor with a specific amount of 7.17 and a %25.64 variance was identified as the most important factor affecting rural poverty in Miyandoab County. Research limitations/implications- The most important Constraints of this research were the lack of cooperation of the authorities in the process of completing the questionnaire, and the lack of accurate statistics on rural poverty. Practical implications- The most important ways that can improve the growing situation of the poor in the study area include diversification into rural economies, improvement of economic infrastructure and change in government policies in the field of creating new and small rural businesses. Originality/value - Few studies have been conducted in this area. Therefore, consideration of the phenomenon of rural poverty and the factors influencing its expansion with the Q method is essential for accurate and logical planning by planning organizations such as the Ministry of the Interior, the Deputy Rural and Nomad Committee, and academic researchers.
Purpose - Women play a significant and growing role in business development and their entrepreneurship has attracted so much attention throughout the world. Since women entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behavior are influenced by several factors, the present study aims to explore the impact of social capital and its components on entrepreneurial behavior of rural women who were members of cooperatives across Mazandaran province, Iran. Design/methodology/approach - The statistical population was composed of 1396 members of 11 rural women cooperatives out of which 320 individuals were taken as the research sample using proportionately allocated stratified technique based on Krejcie and Morgan’s table. Data were collected with a self-designed questionnaire composed of two sections for social capital in five aspects and entrepreneurial behavior in six aspects. The validity of the research instrument was checked by a panel of experts and its reliability was estimated by Cronbach’s alpha to be 0.921 for social capital section and 0.905 for entrepreneurial behavior section. Data were analyzed in descriptive and inferential sections using SPSS and LISREL software packages. Findings - The social participation aspect of social capital and the resource supply aspect of entrepreneurial behavior were ranked the first. The qualitative assessment of social capital and entrepreneurial behavior showed that they were at a satisfactory level among the members of rural women cooperatives. According to the path coefficient calculated in the structural equations (0.9), social capital plays a significant role in entrepreneurial behavior among the members of rural women cooperatives. Also, the results of structural equations revealed that intra-group social participation was the most important aspect of social capital in terms of the influence on the entrepreneurial behavior of rural women. Research limitations/implications - The dispersion of rural women cooperatives across the province and difficult access to their members to fill the questionnaire were the main constraints of the study. Practical implications - Entrepreneurial behavior can be strengthened and developed by improving social capital through communication of cooperatives with other agencies and institutions involved in rural affairs such as other successful cooperatives, regular meetings to clarify the activities of cooperatives, and the enhancement of women’s awareness of opportunity recognition and decision-making through holding training workshops and courses of practical entrepreneurship. Originality/value - The results can be used by relevant organizations to develop and accomplish pre-determined goals for rural women cooperatives through strengthening the issue of entrepreneurship.
Purpose - Quality and living conditions of humans are heavily reliant on their housing. A suitable shelter will prevent illness and damage to a large extent and plays a crucial role in promoting people's mental and physical condition. This study seeks to analyze and evaluate the effects of improving the quality of housing on promoting the physical and mental health of villagers. Design/methodology/approach - This is an applied research that adopts a descriptive-analytical method. The main data collection instrument is a questionnaire. The studied area is Shandiz district in Binalud town, Khorasan Razavi Province. The statistical population of this research consists of 11 villages, which according to 2017 Census accommodated 5921 households. The sample size was estimated at n=190 using the Cochran formula with an error of 0.07%. Data gathering tool comprised interview, field questionnaire and observation. The questionnaire items were designed based on a Likert scale. For the analysis of data, descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation test, single sample t-test and regression) were used in the SPSS software. The villages were ranked by WASPAS analysis (the weighing in WASPAS analysis is based on entropy). Findings - The results of Pearson correlation test showed that the quantitative (0.549), physical (0.513), the socio-cultural (0.505), and the environmental (0.522) dimension were significantly correlated with mental- psychological health. With regard to the physical health, there was only a direct and weak relationship with the physical dimensions (0.149). As for the health variable, the quantitative (0.651), physical (0.623), socio-cultural (0.605) and environmental (0.596) dimensions had a strong direct relationship, meaning that as dimensions of the quality of housing improves, the health of villagers is affected and their physical and mental health is promoted. The results of pathway analysis showed that among independent variables (quantitative, physical, socio-cultural and environmental variables) the quantitative dimension had the highest effect on dependent variable (physical and mental health) with a value of 0.564. Practical implications - According to the results, improving the quality of housing will promote the mental and psychologic health of villagers. Originality/value - Selecting a suitable rural housing model can definitely yield positive outcomes for promotion of health standards both in physical and mental dimensions.
Purpose - In recent decades, several activities have been carried out in the form of development projects to develop rural settlements in Iran. One of the most important of these is the implementation of the guide plans. This plan, with its various actions, has caused widespread changes in various dimensions of rural life. The present study investigated the effects of this project on the changes in the lifestyle of the rural community in the central district of Darab county. Design/methodology/approach - The present research is descriptive in terms of describing the characteristics of the society studied and analytical in terms of investigating the relationship between the actions level of guide plans and the lifestyle. In this respect, the required field data are provided using observations, interviews, and questionnaires. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, spatial analysis and SAW model, and Expert Choice, SPSS and ArcGIS software are used. Findings - The results of the research confirmed that there are significant differences between the level of changes in different dimensions of lifestyle, and the greatest changes are in the style of construction. On the other hand, the results of a Pearson correlation showed a positive relationship between the actions level of all executive components of the guide plans with a modernization level of the villagers’ lifestyle. Based on the results of the linear regression test, it was found that approximately 41% of the total changes in modernization can be predicted through the action level of the guide plan. Research limitations / implications - Owing to the different effects of the guide plans on lifestyle changes in different age groups and genders, the attention of researchers to the needs of different villagers is necessary. Practical implications - It is imperative to pay more attention to the efficiency of the environment being built in order to respond appropriately to the lifestyles of the present and future generations and more attention is required on the part of designers and conductors of guide plans to create a suitable platform for the development of communication technology in the villages, which will create a variety of changes in the modernization of the lifestyle of the households residing in them. Originality/value - This research will be important to provide guidance for good feedback, and to make plans for problems. Because it can take positive steps in making future projects as good as possible and such an approach will be effective to recognize prior strategies and design future policies.
Purpose - The present study was undertaken to explore the model of the sustainable development planning of rural economy in Yazd province. Design/methodology/approach - This is an applied research that draws on an exploratory approach for data collection and is descriptive-analytical with regard to the description of characteristics. The main research instrument was a questionnaire coupled with semi-structured interviews. The statistical population of the study consisted of government actors in Yazd province, who were selected using multi-stage sampling method. Findings - The findings of this research indicated that planning sustainable development of rural economy in Yazd province has been consistent with the rational approach in terms of characteristics and compatible with the operational planning in terms of pattern. The central planning process has been top-down, and therefore, the local communities have not been involved in any of the planning processes. Research limitations / implications -The dominance of the traditional views on planning and the absence of stakeholders and locals in the planning framework has led to seven decades of ineffective development programs in Iran. Therefore, changing the planning pattern from the traditional (rational) to new (interactive-communicative) approach, which would lead to decentralization and the establishment of a public involvement in the planning system, especially in rural development, can help cope with the shortcomings of seven decades of rural development programs in Iran in general, and Yazd province in particular. Practical implications - Trusting people and utilizing the knowledge of rural people, especially the educated and young people, not only in planning but also in managerial positions such as district deputy in which the candidates are chosen among the local people, use of regional potentials such as Basij of Engineers to set up small knowledge-based circles at the city level and specialization of rural districts are some of the solutions that can trigger rural development under an interactive pattern. Originality/value : It is also important to identify the model that is employed by the dominant approach to development planning in a country. Based on this model, many features such as the extent of concentration and the role of people in the planning system, the role of local potentials and the limitations in planning, the place of monitoring and evaluation, among other things, in fostering development can be identified.
Purpose - Development of rural areas is one of the challenges of Iran. This has led experts to provide strategic solutions for the development of ecotourism and entrepreneurship, addressing the economic, social and environmental challenges of rural areas. Therefore, the present study aims to categorize9 selected villages in North Khorasan Province located along Bojnord-Golestan Road in terms of indicators of entrepreneurial ecotourism. Design/methodology/approach - To explore the subject and its results, we recruited descriptive-analytical methods in the form of library research and field studies. For analyzing and collecting data from the literature, entrepreneurial ecotourism indices were classified in four groups of agricultural and livestock potentials, invaluable natural and historical heritage, cultural and social attitudes, and construction and residential infrastructure. The process of categorizing the capabilities, environmental potentials and ecotourism strengths of the 9 villages with respect to these four indicators was performed by SPSS & R software using Fuzzy Hierarchy Process Analysis (FAHP) model. Findings - Based on the ecotourism indices and the rank of villages specified by the FAHP method, two villages of Dasht and Darkash with average scores of 4.37 and 3.87 had the highest ecotourism ranks and two villages of Shirabad and Keshanak with mean scores of 2.00 and 0.94 had the lowest ranks, respectively. On the other hand, examining the status of indicators of ecotourism development suggested that cultural and social attitude index with a mean of 2.4 hd the highest rank and the index of construction and residential infrastructure with a mean of 2.94 had the lowest rank among 9 villages under study. Practical implications - Strategic planning for the development of ecotourism in North Khorasan was conducted based on the categorization of villages selected in this research. Originality/value : Categorization of villages is of paramount importance in the entrepreneurial ecotourism development as it simultaneously focuses on economic, social and natural potentials in rural areas and helps allocate limited financial resources appropriately.
Purpose - Tourism, as a booming and dominant activity of this century, has a lot of effects in rural areas, including economic effects, which according to different spatial situations can have different intensity and directions of changes and developments. In this regard, this study was codified with the aim of spatial analysis of tourism impacts on rural areas of Rezvanshahr. Design/methodology/approach - According to the purpose, nature and method, this study is considered as a developmental and descriptive-analytical research, respectively. Documentary and survey methods have been used to obtain the required information and the TOPSIS model has been used to rank the economic and social needs of the villages studied. Using SPSS and GIS software, the collected data was processed and Pearson correlation test was used in inferential analysis of data. Findings - The results showed that the economic level of villages varies based on four indicators (the income level, unemployment rate, level of facilities and misery rate), the lowest and the highest of which are related to Kish-e-Khaleh village with 0.001 and Punnel village with 0.9056, respectively. Furthermore, the results of Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is a significant relationship between the independent variable of the number of tourists and dependent variable of the local economy level with a correlation coefficient of 0.626 at a confidence level of 0.99. Research limitations / implications - The lack of documented information and the indeterminate number of tourists, especially in rural areas, are the most important challenges and problems of the study. Practical implications - Therefore, according to the findings, It is possible to shape the economic development of villages by developing tourism attractions and actualizing the potential of tourist attraction in settlements. Originality/value - Numerous studies have, so far, been carried out on tourism and rural economics. However, this study is valued based on the spatial analysis of the economy in the rural areas of the three types of coastal, plain and mountainous/ highland in the district of Rezvanshah and has not been addressed in previous studies.