Freedom is an abstract concept which is more understandable by its limitations. The question is that, is there a comprehensive concept of freedom in western idealism? For this purpose, this study created some conceptual research in the poles of western idealism. Accordingly, freedom in framework of Socratic philosophy had no context except virtue orientation. Then, it was reduced to security and property in the new period. The present study used the discourse analysis of freedom to show why and how the concept of freedom has an underlying and philosophical concept in old and new schools. Thus, a single and undeniable attitude to freedom in western idealism is non-scientific and non-historical. The present study selected the analytical comparative method to discuss the concept of freedom discourse in western political thought in old and new periods, indicating why and how freedom is a discourse concept; or at least belongs to its specific community, and cannot be necessarily compared in a generalized, universal way.
The increase of terrorist acts and the essential, methodological and instrumental evolution of terrorism have led to the emergence of various forms of terrorist acts that cannot be combated with conventional and existing patterns. In this study, the researcher has addressed the comprehensive model for the fight against terrorism in order to enhance the domestic knowledge of this phenomenon and to pay attention to the practical needs existed in this field. The researcher by using descriptive-analytical method aims to identify both positive and negative aspects of comprehensive model for fighting terrorism. This model is based on six strategic policies as follows:A) Policies designed and implemented for the purpose of physical confrontation, weakening and/or elimination of terrorist unit, such as information dominance, organizational empowerment and operational dominance. B) Policies designed to socialize counter-terrorism and are meant to create a powerfully integrated society which has a high degree of impenetrability and certitude in potential terrorist acts. From this perspective, the priority is given to strengthen internal consistency, to heighten public awareness, and to increase the threshold of social tolerance and insight.
In the religious democracy system, the election is the area of power generation and its continual. In the electoral realm, the people fulfill the democracy by choosing the rulers, and since Islam forms the essence and framework of people’s movement and life, in Islamic democracy, the executives, candidates, and supervisors of election, people, and more than others, the electoral candidates must realize the Islamic ethical principles. Politics serves morality and religion in the religious democracy. The present article evaluated some of the coordinates and requirements of electoral ethics in the religious democracy system. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this essay described some basic principles of the electoral ethics charter, which should be considered by those involved in the election process, including voters, candidates, executives, supervisors and observers, and the media.
Justice and Ethnic Diversity Policy-Making in the Islamic Republic of Iran: the Place and Implications
Ethnic diversity in each country requires policy-making harmonized with the principles of the political system and the diversity state in that nation. Iran is one of the countries that has ethnic diversity. Justice in the Islamic Republic of Iran is a fundamental discourse and a legitimating factor that policy-making must be based on it. Therefore, justice in ethnic diversity policy-making has importance; it has also some implications. In this paper, by scholarly method and using existing resources and documents, besides choosing the approach and defining justice to put everything it its place as a theoretical framework, the status and importance of justice in policy-making of ethnic diversity will be explored from three perspectives:Firstly, the theoretical aspect by which presenting theories aims at explaining the relationship between justice and the emergence of ethnic crises. Secondly, the objective and field aspect, which signals the results of surveys, indicates the place of justice in policy-making of ethnic diversity. Finally, there is the importance of justice in the high-level documents related to the ethnic domain, which the volume of this issue indicates the significance of discussing justice in policy-making. In the next step, the implications of choosing a fair approach toward ethnic diversity policy-making in the Islamic Republic of Iran have been extracted. Reviews and studies have shown that the principal, objective, process, political and structural implications are taken from the adoption of a fair approach toward the policy-making of ethnic diversity.
Justice as one of the most important issues in educational and sociological sciences, has always attracted attention of thinkers. The meaning of justice is different from one viewpoint and is the same from anther viewpoint in two realms of sociological and educational sciences (philosophy, theosophy, and gnosticism). In both realms, justice is the quality of action and behavior, but in educational sciences it is the quality of the Almighty and the perfect Man, and also the quality of the universe, while in sociological science it implies the nature of behaviors, relationships and laws of man. Shahid Mohammad Bagher Sadr, with his command of educational sciences and practical Islamic sciences, seriously tried to explain the relationship between these two categories from viewpoints of what “is” and what “should be”. In this paper, using interpretive method, Shahid Sadr’s perspectives about justice were investigated. Justice as an expressed reality across the universe and as the final aim of religion in two individual and social dimensions, beside Shahid Sadr’s viewpoints and guidelines to accomplish justice were explained.
Iranophobia is the hyperreality or representation of Iran’s reality in international relations. With the Baudrillard’s postmodern attitude, we can consider this phenomenon as one of the examples of displacement of the boundary of reality and representation, which was put on the agenda of the West, especially the United States, after the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a political project. Accordingly, Iranophobia was formed influenced by the cultural nature of the Islamic Revolution and its focus on the soft aspects of power and the reflection of the Islamic Revolution in the international relations and possible challenges to the interests of the West, especially in the Middle East region. Thus, in a short period time of after the Revolution, many of the concepts and developments of Iran’s foreign and domestic politics, including the policy of issuing the revolution, Iran’s support for liberation movements and causes, the Iraqi imposed war on Iran, the human rights issue, Iran’s attempt to achieve military-defensive capabilities, etc. were interpreted with a reverse approach to their reality. This article tried to explain the dimensions and forms of Iranophobia and its consequences in the international relations by analyzing the backgrounds and roots of Iranophobia.