Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory

Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory

Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory, Volume 1, Issue 1, Spring 2018



Investigating validity and reliability and factor analysis of Webster's Wisdom Questionnaire in Iran

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Webster's Wisdom Questionnaire is a well-known self-assessment scale, which can cover a wide range of future wisdom studies. This research was conducted with the aim of factor analysis and examining the reliability and validity of Webster's Wisdom Questionnaire and to evaluate the relationship between wisdom and age and gender. This questionnaire contains 40 questions assessing the people's wisdom. In a cross-sectional study, 395 (293 males and 102 females) of Sanandaj city, selected by randomized cluster sampling, were assessed using Webster's Wisdom Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using correlation coefficient, factor analysis and t-test. Using factor analysis, four factors of the proper use of experiences, emotional regulation, reflection, and humor were extracted. To assess the reliability of this questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation were used. The results revealed that this questionnaire had good convergent validity. In addition, the comparison of these factors between males and females indicated that females significantly obtained higher score than males in two factors of using the experiences and emotional regulation. Moreover, the high correlation of factors with the total score of the questionnaire and poor correlation of the factors with each other reflect the adequacy and efficiency of this questionnaire to be used by researchers, experts, and psychologists in Iran.

The Effectiveness of Teaching Critical Thinking Skills On Students’ Academic Achievement in Mathematics and Science: A Study in Timss Framework

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The present study, which was conducted in Timss 2007 framework, aims to examine the effectiveness of teaching critical thinking on students’ academic achievement in mathematics and science. Research design was Semi-experimental. Research sample (With available sampling method) included two classes of third grade students in Eghbal middle school in Baharestan, Tehran, Iran in 2014-15 which were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Afterwards, the experimental group received critical thinking teaching for 12 sessions, while the control group received no training during this period. The data were gathered using parallel forms of Timss 2007 study, which were implemented in three periods. The data were analyzed through Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), and t-test. Results showed that critical thinking teaching could considerably improve students’ performance in mathematics and science in domains of reasoning and applying; however, no significant relationship was revealed between critical thinking teaching and students’ performance in the domain of knowing. Findings of the follow up test, in addition, indicated a significant decrease in applicants’ scores of experimental group. It can be concluded that critical thinking teaching should be brought into sharper focus in syllabuses of middle schools as its principles could not only resolve students’ problems in academic issues but they also would result in improving performance of students in the domains of mathematics and science.

Effectiveness of early educational interventions on self regulation skills in preschool children.

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Aims: The aim of the current research was to Investigat the effectiveness of early educational interventions on the self regulation skills of preschool children.  Method: Statistical population was the Preschool children of Isfahan kindergarten aged 6 to 7 during 2017-2018.The sample consisted of 30 Preschool children that were selected using Attainable sampling. The sample consist of 30 Preschool children that were selected using cluster sampling (each group consisted of 15 children). The early educational interventions performed in experimental group. In the semi experimental design, the Preschool Self-regulation Assessment (Smith Donald, 2007) used to measure research variables.  Results: Results showed that early educational interventions were effective in cognitive, emotional and behavioral regulation skills and leading to improved school readiness in children. Conclusion: So early education can have the main role in self regulation among children. Thus, it indicates that effective self-regulation provides a foundation for positive classroom behavior and academic achievement.

The Effectiveness of Working Memory Training on Reading Difficulties among Students with Reading Disorder

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Purpose: the present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of working memory training on reading difficulties of students with reading disorder. Method: the method of this study was experimental with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The statistical population consisted of all elementary school children with reading disorder, who had attended counseling centers of Tehran Education Department in the spring of 2017. Then, these students were randomly assigned to two groups of 15 (one control group and one experimental group) and the intervention program of working memory training was performed on the experimental groups over a period of 10 sessions, with each session lasting for half an hour. Both Simple Random Sampling and Convenience Sampling methods were applied. To measure reading difficulties, WISC- R (3rd edition) and Reading and Dyslexia Test (NEMA) were used. The obtained data were analyzed using the statistical method “Covariance Analysis”. Findings: the results of Covariance Analysis showed that working memory training intervention is effective on all sub-components of Reading & Dyslexia Test (p <0.01), with its greatest impact being on picture naming, sound elimination and category mark. Conclusion: accordingly, it was concluded that the experimental group`s interventions based on working memory training, as a useful intervention method, can be effective on reducing reading difficulties of students with learning disorder, and can be applied as a complementary exercise to reduce reading difficulties among this group of students.


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Aim: Considering the effects that open school spaces can have on students, the aim of the study is to provide guidelines for designing school open spaces to enhance level of emotional intelligence and learning in primary school children. This can be done through enhancing the level of motivation and providing the appropriate space to play.  Methods: In this research a quantitative-qualitative research method is applied. Also the Delphi system of gathering data is used to produce content-table and questionnaires. According to the Kline, the sample size is calculated around 326. Teachers and school designers were questioned using randomized cluster sampling. Results: The data is evaluated in SPSS software program version of 22 using R factor analysis to produce analytical model in Amos. The results of the research indicate that physical aspects of space including: natural and diverse elements, spaces with cultural functions, Semi-private (with supervision) and flexible environments, spatial diversity, space for different types of play and diverse connections between open & close spaces affect the meaning aspect of space which is considered emotional intelligence. Conclusion: School open spaces are physical sites as well as social sets. Students’ behavior, abilities and space applications can be affected by spatial characteristics in schoolyard and improving emotional abilities.

Application of Conceptual Change Model in Teaching Basic Concepts of Physics and Correcting Misconceptions

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This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change model (CCM) on learning the basic concepts of Electrostatics. CCM is an active teaching method that puts the emphasis on children's preconception. The underlying principles of CCM are derived from constructivist theory. The growing body of research shows that students’ knowledge about Physics has formal aspects rather than being useful and usable. Students encounter problems in understanding of Physics concepts (such as static electricity), therefore their perception and understanding is often subject to misconception. So Electrostatics was considered as the subject of this study. The study population comprised of female junior high school students. Design used in this study was the quasi- experimental method of Solomon four-group design. The samples were selected conveniently and randomly assigned to two experimental and two control groups. Researcher-made tests of academic achievement, in three areas of knowledge, comprehension and application of concepts, were used as the data collection tool. Central and dispersion measures, the t-test and two-way analysis of variance were used to test the hypotheses. Research findings showed that CCM teaching methods are superior to the traditional way of teaching and learning physics concepts in detecting and correcting misconceptions.

Predictors of Vocabulary Achievement: Testing a Model of Life Syllabus and Web-Based Language Teaching

تعداد بازدید : ۶۷ تعداد دانلود : ۵۰
Purpose: This research was done to investigate the effect of life syllabus and web-based language learning on the vocabulary improvement of the participants of the study and to seek the attitudes of the learners on the use of web-based approach in language class based on life syllabus. Methodology: Michigan test (version1997) was presented and students were divided into one experimental group who learned their course vocabularies making use of free vocabulary learning sites of IELTS English language learning site every day for 8 weeks based on life issues and one control group who received ordinary classroom instructions each session. Findings: The result appeared to manifest that learners’ perception improved by incorporating web based instruction in language learning classroom based on life syllabus. The findings indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control groups with regard to their vocabulary knowledge. Web-based language teaching instruction enhanced EFL learners' vocabulary knowledge. As Life Syllabus proved to be useful with Iranian EFL learners, EFL teachers also can adopt the technique in their classes to advance their students' language learning and improve their memory.