Purpose- One of the key challenges in the border areas of Sistan is the existence of different ethnic groups and nationalities with different sense of place and identity belonging. The ethnic and national differences has created a turbulent and chaotic landscape in border villages of Sistan and caused a lot of damages to the sense of place and identity in affected areas. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the Afghans and the sense of place in the border villages of Sistan. Design/methodology/approach- The research method is descriptive -analytical and is based on library research and survey. The sample consisted of 31 villages inhabited by Afghans with 3669 households. A sample of 347 households were selected using Cochran's formula and were interviewed based on random sampling. The data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient in SPSS Software. Findings- The results of the test show that there is a significant relationship between the number of Afghan residents and sense of place in the studied area with a confidence level of 99 percent, so that by increasing Afghan households, sense of place decreases in the rural area and by reducing households in the rural area, the sense of place will increase. According to the results, it can be expressed that informal settlement of Afghans caused a reduction of sense of place in border villages of Sistan. Research limitations/implications- One of the restrictions on the way of the research can be lack of accurate statistics on the informal settlers living in the border villages of Sistan. Among the strategies that can be offered to improve regional identity, is a complete identification of the illegal migrants, the setting of firm rules for their control, and the monitoring of the security agencies on immigration. Practical implications- In order to solve this problem, the exact number of immigrants (illegal) settled in the area should be counted and according to law, they should be either granted citizenship or returned to Afghanistan. In the meantime, the best way is to grant citizenship to immigrants because evidence suggests that the majority of refugees return to their country after being fired from Iran. Accordingly, it is possible to confirm Afghan refugees by granting Iranian citizenship, national identity, and immigration in the destination country (Iran). Originality/value- So far, no attention to the sense of place of cross-border migrants (Afghans) to Iran, especially in border villages. Nevertheless, the present study has authenticity and practical value. Users of the results of this research are rural and regional planners, provincial government of Sistan and Baluchistan and its departments and agencies under the Department of Afghan citizens in the country.
Purpose- One of the most important strategies facing drought and agriculture water shortage in North-West Iran is developing pressurized irrigation systems (PISs). In this regard, the present study aims to investigate the factors determining the adoption of the PISs by farmers in Ardabil Province. Design/methodology/approach- First, by drought zoning of Ardabil Province (by SPI method and GIS software), three regions including regions with mild, moderate and severe drought levels were determined. In the second step, using multi-stage cluster sampling, adopter and non-adopter farmers of the PISs were selected from three regions of study (n= 415). Also, the logistic regression was used to determine the affective and distinctive factors of farmers' groups. Findings- According to the results of logistic regression analysis, the predictive power of model was 0.622 and the sensitivity of the regression model to determine the model validation was obtained as 85.8%. Also, from among 17 factors of study, 7 factors of education level, farm income, knowledge about the PISs, the infrastructure for PISs, the effect of local weather conditions, the trust towards the optimality of PISs and the improvement in farm water management, positively impacted on the adoption and use of PISs. Among effective factors, knowledge about the PISs (Wald: 32.676), the trust towards the optimality of PISs (Wald: 27.855) and the infrastructure for PISs (Wald: 21.648) were the most important factors predicting to the decision to adopt and use PISs among farmers. Research limitations/implications- Since the study was carried out in a large area of the province, accessing the farmers and experts in the Ardabil Province was difficult and time consuming. Practical implications- The agricultural extension and education programs and PRA method, can provide the basis for the adoption of PISs among most of the farmers. Also, the infrastructure programs for the implementation and setting up of PISs are the priority of governmental projects to develop the PISs in the regions of the study. Originality/value- It seems that identifying and providing the necessary infrastructure for implementing pressurized irrigation programs should be based on the scientific needs assessment of the agricultural fields’ conditions in different regions. Also, proper the appropriate government funding and financial support for the appropriate infrastructure of PISs will increase the willingness of farmers to adopt and use of the PISs.
Purpose- The purpose of the study is to determine the land use change scenarios in Bash Qaleh dehestan. Design/methodology/approach- Research methodology is based on futures studies and scenario studies. First, a list of drivers using documents 34 domestic and foreign research in the field of land use was prepared and then through the view of villagers and farmers (318) (Using Likert scale) and experts (22) the importance and their impact on land use were studied. For development scenarios, a team of five experts (2 rural planners, 2 regional planners, one natural resource expert) was used. Mick Mac software and Wizard scenario were also used for data analysis. Findings- The results showed that people's income, production level, return on investment in activity, industrial agriculture and agricultural margin were the most effective and uncertain drivers of land use change. For these drivers, eight scenarios were developed and developed. Practical implications- Food security, encouragement of conservation of resources, encouraging policies for population growth, increasing community well-being, droughts, climate change, soil erosion, the emphasis of civil society on the rights of citizens and protection of the rights of the next generation, the emphasis of governments on economic self-sufficiency is only part of the opposite trends which has faced land use challenges. It is suggested that specific programs be developed and monitored to avoid them for any scenario.
Purpose - The objective of the study is to assess the satisfaction rate of village residents from life quality as a factor affecting immigration, together with the sense of belonging as a factor preventing immigration, and the correlation thereof, among the residents of Khosrowabad village (statistical population=672) in Konani district, Kuhdasht county. Design/methodology/approach- The method adopted is descriptive-analytic. The sample collected by Cochran sampling method constitutes 262 residents. The data required in this study are obtained by questionnaire and the descriptive inferential statistics is applied for data analysis. Findings: The results reveal that the satisfaction rate of residents from life quality in Khosrowabad village is lower than that of the average. The satisfaction rate of males with 2.88% is higher than that of females with 2.85%. The regression analysis results indicate that the economic index with 0.244 β is the most effective on life quality. The analysis of the sense of belonging revealed that the rate of this variable is higher than that of the average and the psychological-tranquility index with 0.493 β is the most effective. As to the Spearman test, the correlation between life quality satisfaction and sense of belonging is significant at 99%. Research limitations/implications- Life quality is a multidimensional issue with various definitions and theories thereof. The villagers’ attitude towards life quality and its indexes is restricted. Originality/value- The attitude in this study towards such issues like life quality and sense of belonging is different and the study area is being exposed to this type of study for the first time.
Purpose- Place attachment is not just dependent on the place of birth and, as phenomenologists have acknowledged, "experience," is the most significant element of the perception of concepts and meaning of a place; accordingly, meaning in a place is directly related to the way of human perception and its related categories. The main objective of the present study is to investigate and analyze the spatial-geographic factors affecting place attachment of the Kurdish immigrants in Rudbar, Guilan province. Design/methodology/approach- This study is quantitative in terms of the nature of the research and is descriptive-analytical in terms of data analysis. Data collection was done using library and documentary as well as field and survey methods. The statistical population of the study consisted of the Kurdish villages of Guilan province in Rudbar with 12 villages and a total population of 2,955 people. Using Morgan's table, the number of samples was determined as 340 people. To increase the level of confidence and reduce the error in data, the number of samples was increased and 355 questionnaires were finally completed. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a number of professors in the geography department of Guilan University. Moreover, to determine the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha was run. The value of 0.874 was obtained for the coefficient. Findings- The results of the study showed that there was a negative relationship between the location of the villages and the level of education and place attachment of the villagers in the way that the more the distance between the villages and districts, towns, and cities, the lower the sense of place attachment of the villagers would be. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2), 4.5% of the variance of place in the rural households under study was explained by these indicators. Also, with the increase in the education level of the villagers, place attachment is reduced. On the other hand, there was a direct and positive relationship between the duration of residence in the village and place attachment to the village, which means that people who had lived longer in the village had also more sense of place. The obtained results showed the effect of spatial-geographic factors on place attachment of rural households. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2), 99.1% of the variance of place attachment was explained by spatial, economic, and socio-political factors. Research limitations/implications- A limitation of this study was the lack of easy access to the Kurdish villagers in the above-mentioned villages. Originality/value- By providing the ideal conditions for living in different spatial (geographical) dimensions, one can strengthen place attachment in the villagers and significantly reduce its harmful consequences. For instance, despite the great ethnic and cultural differences with the host society within a long period of residence, the immigrant Kurds in Rudbar have been able to have pleasant feelings towards their place of life and somehow attach to it due to the existence of certain desirable spatial, social, and economic features and potentials such as proper and safe physical environment, intergroup and intragroup interactions, as well as desirable areas for earning money and employment.
Purpose- The aim of this study was to investigate the mental image of local residents of tourism destination villages in Karaj city regarding the economic and social effects of tourism and its effect on tourism development tendency. Design/methodology/approach- This research is based on an applied and descriptive-analytical method. Data related to any of the variables have been collected through questionnaires and interviews. The statistical population of the study is the residents of the villages of tourism destination in Karaj city. Out of this, 365 local residents of the villages were selected according to Cochran formula as the sample population. To analyze the research findings, AMOS and SPSS software were used. Findings- The results of this study showed that the mental image of the local residents of the tourism destination villages in Karaj is positive about the economic and social effects of tourism development. Also, the satisfaction of local residents from economic dimensions of tourism with a factor of 0.77 compared to their social mental image with a factor of 0.70 has a greater impact on the local community's desire for tourism development. Research limitations/implications- The difficulty of crossing the mountainous slopes of Chalous Road, the unwillingness of some respondents in the studied villages for individual and social reasons, the lack of sufficient statistics and information about the province of Alborz due to the newly established and non-differentiated statistics from the Tehran province are among the limitations of the research. Practical implications- Neglecting local communities in tourism industry activities is a major bottleneck in participatory planning in order to achieve sustainable development of tourism. In this regard, planners and custodians of tourism in the studied villages should develop sustainable tourism to meet the needs and desires of local residents, while the development of sustainable tourism will be impossible without the participation of local residents and their loyalty toward tourists. In this way, the maximum satisfaction of the local community is realized as an indispensable necessity for the successful development of tourism. Originality/value- In this research, we tried to provide a comprehensive and systemic approach which is a geographical attitude to evaluate the tendency of local residents of target tourism villages of Karaj County about tourism effects. In addition, the effect of this attitude was examined on local community satisfaction using structural equation modeling.
Purpose- sustainable rural housing can be considered as an important index in rural development. Hence, preparing plans in the area of sustainable rural housing requires different aspects and components of sustainable housing to be identified and analyzed. Designing and employing sustainable housing indices is especially important in rural planning as an essential instrument to express physical, socioeconomic, and environmental aspects of sustainable housing. The present study aims at identifying and explaining appropriate indices and criteria to evaluate housing sustainability and to operate the indices in the country villages. This is done by emphasizing Ghouchan Atigh rural district and presenting a modern methodological framework through a survey among the scientific elites by Delphi method. The present study is seeking to find out which indices are more valid and valuable for evaluating housing sustainability in Ghouchan Atigh rural district; and how is the process of designing appropriate indices and criteria to evaluate sustainable housing in rural areas. Design/methodology/approach- the methodology of the present study is based on descriptive-analytic methods as well as quantitative-qualitative mixed method. Findings- the findings of the study indicate that among 128 designed indices, 70 key indices were appropriate to rural housing structure especially in Ghouchan Atigh rural district. They include 28 indices to evaluate physical-infrastructural sustainability, 23 indices to evaluate social sustainability, 15 indices to evaluate economic sustainability, and 4 indices to evaluate environmental sustainability. The results also indicate that regarding analysis of the selected indices, physical-infrastructural indices are mostly valid in sustainability analysis with the score of 8.02. Environmental indices with the score of 7.89, social indices with the score of 7.65, and economic indices with the score of 7.49 are at the next ranks.
Purpose- The present study aims at establishing border markets with the purpose of legalizing the deals and economic boom, employment, and promoting life standards in border areas. The main purpose of the present study is to analyze the physical and economic effects of border markets on the development of rural areas. Design/methodology/approach- The present study is an applied study with regard to nature, and descriptive-analytic with regard to methodology. The population of this study includes the villages in the city of Agh-Ghala; 7 villages were selected as the sample, and the data was collected through researcher made questionnaires (383 questionnaires according to Cochran formula). Data analysis was done using Friedman, Chi square, Wilcoxon, and one sample t-tests in SPSS. Findings: Developing border markets leads to improvement in economic and physical indices in rural areas. The most effects were found on the quality of new-built houses, and the fewest effects were found on rural facilities and infrastructures. Border markets had important effects both on economy and culture of rural residents. The only component indicating insignificance was the effect of border markets on the reduction of unemployed people in the society, which is because of lower market boom during recent years and lack of free zones. Research limitations/implications- Spatial dispersion of the villages, limitations in obtaining information, and concerning about questionnaires being completed are some of the issues. Practical implications- Through planning and shift in attitudes in economic issues, sufficient attention will be paid to less considered needs of the residents of border areas; and the rural physical and economic indices will be improved through creating border markets. Originality/value- Border markets and their development can lead to the improvement and promotion of life quality of the residents of border areas and the population willingness to stay.
Purpose- The present study aims at discovering the relationship between economic problems and limitations in Chahan rural district, and sociocultural weaknesses (with regard to the elements of peasant sub-culture). Design/methodology/approach- With regard to the purpose, it is an applied study and it is descriptive-analytical regarding its methodology. Data was collected in two ways: field and documentary. In field studies, we used questionnaires, interviews, and observations at the same time. The statistical population of the study includes 9 villages with 1121 households among 43 villages in Chahan Dehestan; and 285 households were selected as the sample using Cochran. Statistical analysis of the data was performed at two levels; at the first level, the correlation of 7 peasant sub-cultures were identified using Spearman test; and at the second level, the tests U and H were used to determine the differences among the above components in the society groups. Findings- The findings indicate that effectiveness of components like lack of innovation with significance coefficient of 0.022, extreme fatalism with significance coefficient equal to 0.020, and lack of foresight (disability to ignore immediate benefits for the sake of future benefits) with significance coefficient of 0.006 on economy was confirmed and it was proved that they limit economic sustainable development in the rural district under study. In addition, except for extreme fatalism and low level of dreams and wishes, the average of other components of peasant sub-culture are different with regard to gender, age, level of education, types of jobs, and sample villages. In general, what Rogers called a barrier to economic development in the villages in developing countries in his theory of peasant sub-culture, is not true in Chahan rural district (except for the three components whose negative effects were confirmed) but the cultural status of this society is such that it can protect and support economic sustainable development. Practical implications- Since the cultural features in the society under study support economic sustainable development (and does not prevent it), studying adaptability of economic plans with cultural status of the society and exploiting its elements smartly to facilitate the process of economic sustainable development in Chahan Dehestan is recommended. Originality/value- The present study explains the relationship between sociocultural factors (peasant sub-culture) and economic sustainable development through a combined method (qualitative-quantitative), and is the first scientific study in its kind in the studied scope