The political thought of the contemporary Arab thinkers can be formulated in the relation between tradition and modernity. Struggle with modernity and return to the tradition of the Salafist minds, the possibility of rejuvenation of tradition by some other intellectual thinkers, the acceptance of modernity and putting the tradition aside, and the combination and compromise between tradition and modernity, are various forms of this ratiometric that can be beneficial in understanding the political thought of many contemporary Arab thinkers among the Sunni community. Meanwhile, the Council is a key word considered by many scholars from different Sunni countries, especially in the post-Ottoman Empire era, a good starting point for achieving a desirable political system. The type of impression of these thinkers from the council and the meaning given to this key sign from different perspectives, forms the mindset of many of these thinkers: reducing the meaning of council to the level of consultation and monistic view of it, the unanimity of the council with the resolution and community, the belief in the council as a society of Muslim citizens and the Islamic Ummah, and the promotion of the council from democracy are different aspects of contemporary thinkers. The result of this new look can be found in the neglect of the capacity of tradition, including the council, to systematize politics in the modern era with a thinker such as Ali Abdul Raziq, an attempt to revive the council in the new caliph-lovers, such as young Rashid Reza, and the link between Shura(council) and democracy in the moderate school of eastern scholars such as Rashid Reza Pir, Gharzavin and Ghonoushi, and finally believing in the superiority of the council to democracy under Mohammad Tofigh al-Shavi. This paper, by a documentary method, and expressing conceptual framework and different narrations of the concept of the council, seeks to reconsider the position of the council to the aforementioned thinkers.
Anti-Arrogance and Support of Oppressed across the World in Imam Khomeini’s Foreign Policy Thoughts Emphasizing on the Semantics of Suppression and Arrogance in Almizan Interpretation
In this paper, it will be tried to explain the Quranic documents about anti-arrogance and support of Oppressed across the world according to Almizan interpretation, employing the text-based interpretation. Then it will be shown that these two principles have been focused and revived by Imam Khomeini. In fact it will be proved that Imam Khomeini has attempted to review the concepts of anti-arrogance and support of Oppressed across the world inspiring by the holy Quran, and has established them as two columns of his internal and foreign policy. Meanwhile it will be tried to study the concepts of anti-arrogance and support of Oppressed, their dimensions, their types, and their components according to Imam Khomeini’s viewpoint to show that the Quranic concept of anti-arrogance and support of Oppressed across the world is among the key components of his thoughts in the direction of realization of the universal government of Islam.
Islam has a specific approach to the nature of international relations, which is different from two main international discourses, namely, realism and liberalism. In terms of ontological and epistemological foundations, schools in international relations differ from one another and as a result, their approach to international relations is different. This paper intends to compare the ontology foundations of the Islamic approach to international relations in comparison to both realism and liberalism approaches. However, two questions are discussed in this article: First, what are the ontological foundations of the international relations approach? Second, what is the difference between the Islamic theory of international relations and liberalism and realism approaches? In response to these questions, two hypotheses are stated: First, the foundations of the ontology of international relations in Islam, in the dimension of anthropology, are neither pessimistic as realism, nor optimistic as idealism; but in Islamic perspective, human nature is a mixture of nature and instinct and since a Muslim accepts the unseen affairs (qayb) and the absolute divine rule based on his nature, his understanding of politics is a sharia-based and in his view, the principle dominated over international relations is peace-centered. Second, the most important distinction between the Islamic approach to international relations and realism and liberalism is the ontological foundations of this theory. Regarding to these foundations, it has been able to provide an interpretation of the nature of international relations which is more consistent with the reality of the international system. The method of the research is analytical and the way of collecting is a documentary type.
Since its emergence in the Levant including Syria and Iraq, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS Takfiri militant group) selected province of Khorasan (Afghanistan and some parts of Central Asia) as its territory, thus established its sovereignty and identity under the same title. The main question underlying the current study is that what would be the main contexts and substrates for the gradual presence and influence of ISIS in the region? The main hypothesis underlying the article is that: secular authoritarian political structure, the approach adopted and inappropriate actions taken by the governments in the region in response to the extremism, extremist fundamentalist groups in the region, fragile and complex social fabric of Central Asian countries and also the presence of the nationals in the countries of the region in ISIS structure are some of the most important factors that can lead to the formation of ISIS in the region. This presence is a common security threat to Iran and India, which can strengthen the need to security cooperation between the two countries. The current article uses an analytical method, and for data collection, the article has utilized reliable library-based sources.
An Introduction to the Bases of Supporting Islamic Movements in the Foreign Policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran
One of the fundamental principles of the Islamic Republic of Iran in its foreign policy during the last four decades have been to support the liberating movements, specifically the Islamic movements. This policy has been formed according to ideals of Iranians, and based on the Islamic worldview of the Islamic Republic of Iran and its revolutionary discourse. In fact, it has been emphasized in our constitutional law and other legal documents. On the other hand, support of these movements is not only in the direction of our national and ideological benefits, but also, according to completely lawful standards of international law and specifically human rights concerning fate determination and the right of lawful defense. In spite of all these facts, since the victory of the Islamic revolution, the Western countries and, following them, the Western media have continuously accused Iran of supporting terrorism and terroristic groups. This paper is going to explain the difference between these events and the terroristic groups according to international law, human rights and humanitarian principles.
Imam Khomeini is the first jurist who put forth the necessity of establishment Islamic government in the Occultation era and significantly attempts to prove the need for administrative power to implement Islamic decrees. He invoked to the Holy Prophet method in establishing an Islamic state and the fact that the nature of Islamic laws that are universal and eternal by the aim of managing the society to achieve welfare, happiness, and perfection. He claimed that these divine laws are not restricted to the Holy Prophet’s era and they are not executable without an Islamic government with appropriate Islamic institutions and organizations to implement the divine laws in the Muslim society, which will be examined in the first part of this research. Finally, the questions, what are the features of Islamic government in comparison with other forms of government such as secular, liberal democracy, tyrannical, monarchy, and communist according to Imam Khomeini’s point of view will be investigated in the second section. One of the important features that distinguishes Islamic government from other forms of governments is the leadership that Imam Khomeini strongly attempts to prove its divine legitimacy and popular acceptance. He believes that the person, who wishes to be as the successor of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and infallible Imams (AS), should appointed by Allah Almighty through the Holy Prophet and Imams (AS) and has to possess at least two qualifications, the knowledge of Islamic sciences, and the justice. Besides, he must have the general competencies of intelligence and administrative capability to govern the Islamic community. In Imam Khomeini’s opinion, if a person is the most knowledgeable in Religion Science, but fails to recognize the expedient of society or generally lacks in insight the social and political context and in decision-making power, this person is not Mujtahid in social and governance issues and cannot take the reigns of the community.