ISIL or ISIS is a Sunni extremist group. It follows an extreme interpretation of Islam, promotes religious violence, and regards those who do not agree with its interpretations as infidels or apostates. ISIL's ideology originates in the branch of modern Islam that aims to return to the early days of Islam, rejecting later ""innovations"" in the religion which it believes corrupt its original spirit. It condemns later caliphates and the Ottoman Empire for deviating from what it calls pure Islam and hence has been attempting to establish its own caliphate According to some observers, ISIL emerged from the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, the first post-Ottoman Islamist group dating back to the late 1920s in Egypt. It adheres to global jihadist principles and follows the hard-line ideology of al-Qaeda and many other modern-day jihadist groups However, other sources trace the group's roots not to the Islamism of the Muslim Brotherhood and the more mainstream jihadism of al-Qaeda, but to Wahhabism As the major question, I try to analyze the Ideological roots of the violent activities by the Daesh. What religious principles do justify these violent behaviors? Based on a general view, if these violent activities are authorized by the Muslim elite in the world? Are the interpretations offered by these groups are skeptical?
Today, the Middle East is in the grip of religious violence, causing the death of thousands and displacement of millions of the people of this region. To find the roots of religious violence, which has practically paralyzed lives of millions, it is necessary to study it through an interdisciplinary approach. Religious violence involves many individual and collective aspects; psychology, personality, ideology and sociopolitical milieu in which an individual is raised. Attempts have been made in this paper to study the psychological roots of religious violence in the Middle East to shed light on some of its aspects. The main question of this research is: What are the psychological roots of violence in the Middle East? The hypothesis of this paper is that biologically influenced dispositions as well as environmental forces (family, schooling and sociopolitical conditions) molded the personality of Ibn Timiyya, which in turn shaped his ideology (Salafism with excommunication as its central signifier) that heavily influenced the violent movements in the Middle East. Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s discourse analysis was used to study the hypothesis. The findings show that Ibn Timiyya’s ideology, with takfir as its central signifier, the sociopolitical environment of the Middle East and personality of takfiris are the roots of religious violence in the Middle East.
In this paper attempts have been made to study the discourses dominating political Islam to answer these questions: How can one categorize these diverse political Islam discourses? What are the similarities and differences among these discourses in general, and with the Islamic Revolution discourse in particular? The research methodology employed for this study is historical-comparative and the hypothesis of the paper suggests that various political Islamic discourses can be categorized into two jurisdictional-rational discourse and narrative discourse. Islamic Revolution is included in the first category. The two discourses, however, have major differences in central signifier and in interpretations on the floating signifiers. To make a more accurate clarification of the two discourses, in this paper the two discourses have been compared and contrasted in terms of terminology and ideological commonalities with political consequences. To that end, viewpoints of the advocates of each discourse on such variables as their interpretations of monotheism and Divine Sovereignty, justice, excommunication, Holy War, Islamic unity, attitude toward Sharia law, characteristics of Islamic government and qualities of an Islamic ruler, attitude toward political rights of people, attitude toward the West, modernization and new civilization have been studied. Findings of this paper show that despite verbal and conceptual commonalities, there are major differences between the two discourses in interpretation of these commonalities, each of which is believed to have serious political consequences.
The present paper is an attempt to apply Bourdieu’s field theory to the political field of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The concept of field, as explained by Bourdieu, provides a suitable theoretical framework to identify and explain the complexities and intricacies of different behaviors of this system and analyze its absolutely different practices in domestic and international arenas. The main question of this paper is: What is the relationship between political field and other fields in Iranian political landscape? The hypothesis formulate to answer this question is: the political field in the Islamic Republic of Iran has turned into the most preponderant field and this very field in order to survive has dominated other fields, taking away the possibility of their independence. The findings of this paper shows that the growth of political field not only has created limitations for other fields, but also has politicized other fields including the field of religion.
This paper is an attempt to present an interpretation of the representation of religious Identity in “Zero Degree Orbit” novel by Ahmad Mahmoud. Since it needs precise study of the novel for providing an answer to the question, it has to consider four aspects of fiction, i.e. narration, characterization, setting and dialogue. Therefore, studying reality theories in art and applying the two theories of reality production and theory of representation, attempts have been made to represent post-revolution religious identity in viewpoint of renowned novelist Ahmad Mahmoud. Discourse analysis and text analysis methods have been employed. The findings of the paper show that in “Zero Degree Orbit” religious identity has been introduced as a tool for fight against tyranny as well as using the revolutionary aspects of religion in reorganization of the popular fronts and their mobilization against the tyrant regime in addition to promotion of public awareness.
The present article is an attempt to study theoretical aspects of justice in the precept of the holy Prophet of Islam, by focusing on practical and objective results. In the first place, the necessity and significance of political justice has been explained in three parts. In the next step, the nature, levels and foundation of justice in the viewpoint of the holy Prophet are discussed. For purpose of this study, equality is considered as the foundation of justice in human societies. Finally, the main indexes of justice and signs of justice are elaborated. In this paper, political justice in the viewpoint of the holy Prophet has two foundations, three levels, a starting point and one main index. The foundations of justice are reason; levels of justice are the universal system of being, society and human beings. The starting point of justice is the power center at any level of political system and naturally the higher levels are more important. Human beings, on the basis of their four important characteristics and their generalization at the level of political system, which is in charge of realization of justice, achieve two results pertaining to method of justice and objective of justice. These two results prepare the grounds for the society to get close to justice. These two results are lack of extremism and welfare and relief which are congruent with the ultimate objective of justice, i.e., happiness and felicity of human beings in the world and the hereafter.