During the last decade, researchers embarked on several archaeological surveys and excavations in Luristan and they could unearth 29 Neolithic sites there. The current paper, taking into accounts the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Settlement Analysis, tries to analyze the role of environment on the aforementioned Neolithic sites. The study indicates that Neolithic communities chose foraging as the most important way of their livelihood. Water and food resources, wild plants, and animals were found impressive in the site-catchment process. All of the 29 Neolithic settlements are located at the altitudes between 500 and 2000 meters above sea level. These altitudes cover the southern, central, and northern parts of Luristan, the region that enjoys semi-arid climates, cool winters and hot summers, where pastoral livestock has been common. There are many rivers at these heights, but locals often disposed of using springs water. The distance from 26 sites to the springs is about 300 meters.
رحمت عباس نژادسرستی
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An insight into the geomorphological characteristics of Holeylan as well as its suitable environment in the Central Zagros convince us that it has a capacity, more than ever shown, in presenting Paleolithic sites. Thus, the necessity of doing an intensive archaeological survey in this valley with the aim to explore the Paleolithic sites became apparent and was achieved only in the autumn of 2015. The research questions are mainly based on the number of sites, their type and size, geographical variables influencing the site selection patterns among the Paleolithic societies, tool making techniques and identifying raw material sources in Holeylan. During the survey, 103 sites, including 24 caves and rock shelters as well as 79 open air sites were identified with utilities such as residential compounds, seasonal camps and hunting ambushes. Among them, only one of the rock shelters was situated in the eastern most part of the valley. The open air sites formed on the natural hill tops with terraces overlooking Seymareh and Jezman Rivers and their tributaries. Climate and tectonic features seem to be the two main reasons that made Holeylan as one of the most important valleys of central Zagros during the Paleolithic era. Moreover, water resources and its elevation above the sea level were the most important components which led settlements access to raw materials. Chert pebbles and cobbles accumulated in the bed by rivers were resources of tool making in Holeylan Valley during the Paleolithic period.